1998 Chronicle Index

Feature Articles (By Subject)

Business

Is This Worth It? Economic Decision-making for Freelance Language Specialists. Jonathan T. Hine Jr., CRA. 27:23 Feb. (See Freelance)

Freelance language professionals are in business, and pricing one's product or service correctly is crucial to business success. The subject of prices has stirred controversy in the ATA in recent years, but the principles to follow to find a break-even point are basic and need not cause problems. Individual business people may approach the question from different directions. This paper concerns only one: calculating a realistic minimum rate to use as a baseline for decision-making.

Finding Appropriate Translations for Certain Terms Relating to Forms of Business Organization. Eileen B. Hennessy. 27:16 April.

Finding appropriate translations for certain terms relating to forms of business organization often poses problems because even when resemblances exist, as in the case of U.S. and European organizations, there is never perfect equivalence. This article suggests approximate equivalents for terms that can be troublesome for translators working from French into English.

Running a Translation Business in Poland. Jan Weinsberg. 27:21 April.

Is running a translation business in an emerging market a similar experience to that in North America? Three managers of translation agencies located in Poland provide their insights on the risks and benefits of this endeavor in a country where the market economy is in its infancy.

ISO: A Stranger in Your Future? Mary O'Neill. 27:15 July. (See Client Education, Freelance)

How relevant is ISO 9000 to you and your clients?

Client Education

Lost and Found in Translation. Cees Nooteboom. 27:31 Feb.

The importance of translators as guardians of language.

Client Education: What Goes Around Comes Around. Wendy Griswold. 27:18 June.

Client education should be a great deal more than teaching the client what a professional linguist does. It should be a mutual process in which you learn as you teach the client, thus becoming better at what you do.

Border Crossings: Finding the Right Foreign Language Professional. Janice Becker. 27:19 June. (See Localization)

Letting our clients educate us can be the first step to educating our clients. This article focuses on attorneys' experiences with our profession, and what they need to know in order to enhance their working relationships with translators. The process may be applicable to other professions and industries.

Working with Translators: An Exporter's View. Jon Weiner. 27:25 June.

The way to a potential customer's business is through your translator.

ISO: A Stranger in Your Future? Mary O'Neill. 27:15 July. (See Business, Freelance)

How relevant is ISO 9000 to you and your clients?

Quality Control in Arabic Translation. Paul Robertson. 27:29 July. (See Languages [Arabic], Localization)

Ineffective Arabic translation has a negative impact on Western business in the Arab world. The author reviews some of the problems and proposes that an editor with a wide-ranging mandate be included in the process.

Portuguese Translations: What Clients Need to Know. Lyris Wiedemann. 27:34 Aug. (See Languages [Portuguese])

Brazilian and Continental Portuguese differ on phonetic, morphological, syntactic, and lexical levels. The two linguistic variants are products of distinctive historical contexts. It is imperative that translation companies and translators be sensitive to these differences and be capable of conveying them appropriately to prospective clients.

Experts Say National Standards Can Bolster U.S. Translation. Tom O'Keeffe. 27:21 Sept.

The peculiar tyranny of translation has hovered over every assignment since Saint Jerome. How can clients be sure of quality? What makes a quality translation anyway? Led by ATA and the National Foreign Language Center, U.S. translation leaders believe the time has come to grapple with this question. At a June meeting in Washington, DC, some 30 experts set in motion the development of national quality standards under the American Society of Testing and Materials.

Writing for a Global Audience. SimulTrans, L.L.C. 27:15 Nov./Dec. (See Localization)

Learning to write for an international clientele.

Cross-Cultural Issues

Cross-Cultural Issues in Specialist Communication. Faina Citkina. 27:26 Jan. (See Localization)

Cross-cultural divergences are always behind the translation scenes whenever we face profound misinterpretation. The article offers an outline of culture-determined parameters that specialists customarily operate from that can potentially trigger communication breakdown in two-language professional communication.

An American Remembers Cold War Moscow. Steven Shabad. 27:30 April. (See Languages [Russian])

A U.S.-born translator reminisces about the four years spent in a Moscow secondary school at the height of the Cold War which led him into the translating profession. He reflects on the powerful impact that living in the Soviet Union had on him, the culture shock he encountered on his return to the U.S., and some of the lessons he drew from his experiences.

Translating the Politically and the Culturally Sensitive. Jean Ouédraogo. 27:27 May. (See Literary)

An analysis of Nidra Poller's translation of Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma's Monnè, outrages et défis. The novel, an attempt to capture the mood of French colonial politics in a West African kingdom, focuses on the use of language, thus making the indispensable interpreter one of the main protagonists. The study will explore Poller's translation of the interpreter's discourse in terms of its political and cultural accuracy and correctness.

Divine Inspiration. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:39 June. (See Languages [Spanish])

In colloquial speech, English-speakers tend to be more squeamish about invoking the "Man Upstairs" than Spanish-speakers, regardless of their religious convictions.

The Irish in Us (In Praise of Linguistic Minorities). Neil L. Inglis. 27:16 July.

The English language is fast becoming the world's lingua franca. Or is it? Some languages, even if spoken by relatively few people, are resisting this trend. The author remembers his first exposure to the language of Gaelic in the wilds of rural Ireland.

The Cradle of Football. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:45 Sept. (See Languages [Spanish])

Is it football or soccer? A linguistic mystery revealed.

Cultural Aspects of Management. Melinda L. Cain. 27:38 Oct. (See Project Management)

This is a sidebar to Riccardo Schiaffino's article, and provides additional information on the management of a small team of professionals, such as a translation team, specifically in regards to the issues ensuing from cultural differences.

Theater Translations: Tommaso Salvini's Othello, An Italian Moor for the English-speaking Audience. Sasha Perugini. 27:40 Oct. (See Languages [Italian], Literary)

As the title suggests, the article discusses Tommaso Salvini's interpretation of the role of Othello, with particular attention to its reception in North America. The interest in this specific mise en schne arises from its evident cross-cultural foundation: an Italian actor interpreting a Moroccan character to an American audience through an English play, in turn, based on an Italian source. The author analyses one of the factors that contributed to the exceptional popularity of Salvini's portrayal of Othello in the United States.

A Felicitous Expression. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:48 Nov./Dec. (See Languages [Spanish])

Spanish-speakers tend to do more congratulating than English-speakers.

Dubbing

Screen Translation: A European Perspective. Jan Emil Tveit. 27:41 Sept.

The U.S. film and television industries find a ready market in Europe, and European translators are provided with ample work. But whereas some countries dub foreign films, others prefer subtitling. This article discusses the reasons for, and compares the merits of, these two approaches.

Freelance

Who Put the "OY" in Freud? Karyn Tasens. 27:13 Feb. (See Translation Agencies, Bureaus)

A summary of "Group Therapy Session for Problem-Sharing by Translation Company Owners/Managers" which was presented at the ATA conference in San Francisco.

Project Management for Independent Contractors. Kelly Jones. 27:18 Feb. (See Project Management)

Translators as independent contractors need to continuously hone their business skills. This article will discuss some of the project management and communication skills that help every translator build and maintain successful working relationships, whether they work for agencies, direct clients, or a combination. Topics covered will include time management, document prioritization, and business administration tips. These strategies can ease any translator's life and improve their image with clients. Best of all, these practices do not have to conflict with the flexibility independent contractors crave.

The Business of Freelancing. Mordecai Schreiber. 27:20 Feb. (See Professional Development)

The 1980s saw tremendous growth in the translation business. The 1990s have seen further growth due to the new global economy and the electronic revolution. Now more than ever before, freelance translators must sharpen their business skills to succeed.

Is This Worth It? Economic Decision-making for Freelance Language Specialists. Jonathan T. Hine Jr., CRA. 27:23 Feb. (See Business)

Freelance language professionals are in business, and pricing one's product or service correctly is crucial to business success. The subject of prices has stirred controversy in the ATA in recent years, but the principles to follow to find a break-even point are basic and need not cause problems. Individual business people may approach the question from different directions. This paper concerns only one: calculating a realistic minimum rate to use as a baseline for decision-making.

ISO: A Stranger in Your Future? Mary O'Neill. 27:15 July. (See Business, Client Education)

ow relevant is ISO 9000 to you and your clients?

Escaping the Poverty Trap. Eric Weinberger. 27:21 Sept.

Low fees are bad for you. High fees are good for you...and also for your clients. How to make the transition. How to escape the poverty trap.

Humor

There is No Business Like the Translation Business (Part II). Johannes Tan. 27:48 May.

Although translators and language professionals should take their job seriously, it does not necessarily mean they should take themselves too seriously.

International Development

CSOs, NGOs, and CBOs: Democracy in Action. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:18 July. Civil society organizations as building blocks of democratic society.

What is Development? English/Spanish Socioeconomic Terminology. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:20 July. (See Languages [Spanish])

It may be relatively easy to find the Spanish and English equivalents of common socioeconomic terms, such as "real minimum wage" or "per capita GDP growth," but figuring out what they mean may not always be that simple. Through the use of concrete examples, this article reviews certain basic social and economic indicators to help translators without a background in economics understand what development is all about.

Interpreting

The Professionalization of Community Interpreting. Holly Mikkelson. 27:14 March. (See Professional Development)

Community interpreting, which includes court and medical interpreting, is following the typical pattern of a profession in its infancy. In the beginning it is characterized by a lack of standards for training and practice, disorganization and disunity among practitioners, a lack of recognition of the profession among clients and the public, and poor working conditions. These circumstances improve as practitioners unite and form professional associations to impose discipline and standardization and to achieve recognition through education, legislation, and public relations. This article will define the terms "community interpreting" and "profession," present a comparative analysis of community interpreting and other professions, and recommend a course of action to promote the profession in the medium and long terms.

Educating Interpreters: The Role of Reflection in Training. Diane de Terra, David Sawyer. 27:22 March.

A long-standing issue among interpreters has been whether our profession is an art, a skill, or a science. With the objective of improving teaching methods, a new type of course offered at the Monterey Institute of International Studies reconciles the dynamic interrelationship between these three areas. By enhancing the role of reflection in training, interpretation skills are being taught more systematically and being acquired faster than has been done in the past.

Applying the Golden Rule at the Tower of Babel: Interpreting Etiquette. Laura E. Wolfson. 27:25 March.

Monterey-trained State Department interpreter Julia Poger offers a private course in consecutive interpretation and note-taking.

Do U.S.-based Interpreters Have a Future? Michael K. Launer, Tara Lyn Launer, and Michele L. Pedro. 27:18 April. (See Languages [Russian and Ukranian])

This article presents a discussion of the market conditions for interpreting services in Russian and Ukrainian currently faced by interpreters based in the United States. A survey of these interpreters shows that many experienced a significant drop in work offers during 1997.

Horse-and-Carriage Versus Centaur: Conceptual Differences Between English and Spanish in Interpreting Traffic Cases. Daniel Jacobs. 27:34. June. (See Languages [Spanish])

The conceptual differences between English and Spanish in the realm of automobile traffic. To interpret traffic cases effectively, the court interpreter needs to switch swiftly between the Spanish monist and English dualist concepts.

What's in a Name? Lenne Rosen-Kabe. 27:37 July. (See Languages [Spanish])

To hyphenate or not? Spanish/English court interpreters are familiar with the confusion that results from asking a defendant for his "last name." The problem is cultural and linguistic. The solution may lie in clerical intervention.

Interpreting Skills Needed for Use with Hispanic Clients Who Are Hearing

Impaired or Deaf. Cruz A. Cancel. 27:42 Nov./Dec. (See Languages [Spanish])

An overview of some of the skills needed by interpreters working with Hispanic clients who are deaf or hearing impaired.

Interviews

Interview with Dr. John Leigh, Cultural Lexicographer. Lois Feuerle. 27:22 Jan.

An interview with cultural lexicographer Dr. John Leigh, who is currently working on a project involving Randle Cotgrave's Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues.

An Interview with Peter Cassetta, Director of Product Development at Fingertip Software. Galina Raff. 27:39 April. (See Languages [Russian])

A discussion of problems in Cyrillic/Slavic computing.

Languages

Arabic

Middle East Languages in the Electronic Era. Norman M. Burkart. 27:25 July. (See Localization)

What is different about Arabic, Hebrew, and Turkish from a translator's viewpoint? What about e-mail and Web pages into these languages?

Quality Control in Arabic Translation. Paul Robertson. 27:29 July. (See Client Education, Localization)

Ineffective Arabic translation has a negative impact on Western business in the Arab world. The author reviews some of the problems and proposes that an editor with a wide-ranging mandate be included in the process.

Azerbaijani

The Alphabet as a Political Statement: How in the 20th Century the Turks of Turkey have had Two Alphabets and the Azerbaijanis Four. Louis Mitler. 27:31 July.

In 1929, the Turks of the Turkish Republic underwent one official change of their alphabet, from Arabic to Latin, virtually overnight. Their linguistic cousins, the Azeris of the Azerbaijan Republic in the Caucasus, have changed from the Arabic to Latin to Cyrillic and back to Latin in a period of 70 years as their political fortunes fluctuated. Also, unlike the Turks of Turkey, the implementation of the new alphabet, adopted in 1991, has been a slow process not yet near fruition.

Chinese

Joyce's Molly Goes to Beijing: The Chinese Translation of Molly's Monologue in Ulysses. Aiping Zhang. 27:20 May. (See Literary)

With rhetorical devices like spacing, annotation, and vernacular voice, the translation of Molly's monologue in the first full-length Chinese version of Ulysses demonstrates possibilities of adding expressiveness and elegance to faithfulness by avoiding "interference" from cultural/lingual constraints and employing necessary by artful "alterations."

A Brief Comment on the Translation of Proper Names into Chinese. Dave Chen. 27:45 Nov./Dec.

A summary of some of the methods of translating proper names into Chinese, and a few comments on the strong and weak points of fixed Chinese versions of English proper names.

Czech

Strange Characters: Diacriticals in Czech and Other East European Languages. Jiri Stejskal. 27:34 April. (See Technology [Problem Solving])

A discussion on how to work with Czech and other East European languages which use the Latin alphabet with diacritical marks on the three most common computer platforms. Advice on how to convert documents in these languages from one platform to another is offered.

Danish

The Danish Language Laws 100 Years in the Making. Else Mogensen. 27:28 Sept.

Tradition and language use are the key terms in the new language laws in Denmark. These laws are designed to create stability and precision in the Danish language.

Erhvervssprogligt Forbund: The Danish Association of Business Language Graduates. Jeannette Ørsted. 27:30 Sept.

A short survey of the history of Erhvervssprogligt Forbund (The Danish Association of Business Graduates), which has more than 10,000 members, including freelancers and those working with translation and languages in industry. The association works both as a union and professional association, giving equal priority to providing legal advice on all aspects of working conditions for language professionals. In addition, the association focuses on contractual conditions as well as lifelong learning and continuous professional development to ensure the future of the language profession under pressure in a high-pressure global market.

Finnish

Influence of Markedness on Finnish-English Translation of Seitsemän veljestä. Melvin J. Luthy. 27:46 Sept. (See Literary)

Both British and American English translators of the Finnish novel Seitsemän veljestä sometimes use positive verb conjugations in their translations even though the original text has negative conjugations. This article suggests this phenomenon can be explained by the notion of linguistic markedness (when translators tend to prefer less marked forms in the target language). Positive conjugations are less marked, so when an idea can be cast in that form, it often will be.

Translation and Translators in Finland. Simo Merne. 27:39 Sept.

An overview of the translation scene in Finland.

End-User Perceptions of the Quality of Medical Instructions for Use Translated from Other Languages into Finnish. Kaj E. Rekola. 27:30 Aug. (See Localization, Medical)

The pharmaceutical and medical appliances industry is a big consumer of translation services. Translations are frequently approved by the manufacturers' sales representatives in their respective countries. However, approval does not necessarily mean the translations are satisfactory for the end-user. A survey was performed among Finnish clinicians to examine the end-user satisfaction of translated instructions for use and operation manuals. The questions were focused on overall quality, accuracy, readability, conformance to clinical jargon, and errors that could have adverse consequences.

German

Diversity Awaits Its Public: German Literature and Translation in America. Ingo R. Stoehr. 27:43 May. (See Literary)

It is well-known observation that translations are never finished; however, this is far from being a truism. Actually, it sums up the state of German literature in translation in America, which can be appreciated in four steps. First, translation plays a minor role in the U.S. book market. Second, the challenge is to evaluate translation. Third, German literature is vital and diverse. And finally, its international and regional aspects make German literature interesting to American readers, but it is usually not available.

Danger! Translator at Work! Translating Product Warning Labels from English into German. Anne Driesslein and Courtney Searls-Ridge. 27:47 May. (See Localization)

Some tips on how to prevent a warning label from becoming a potential disaster.

Hungarian

Hungarian Poetry: Part II. Louis Korda. 27:30 Jan. (See Literary)

Some notable figures in the history and development of Hungarian poetry.

Hungarian Poetry: Part III. Louis Korda. 27:34 Feb. (See Literary)

The Interpreting and the Translation Market in Hungary. Krisztina Bohák Szabari. 27:31 Nov./Dec.

The article presents the Hungarian interpreting and translation market in transition. It offers a rough outline of its past, indicates some of its current difficulties, and suggests future trends of development, ending on a positive note in the face of all tribulations.

Report on a Visit. István Eörsi (translated by Louis Korda). 27:37 Nov./Dec. (See Literary)

A translation of an original essay written by the well-known Hungarian writer, journalist, dramaturge, poet, and translator István Eörsi.

Italian

Tips and Resources for the Italian Medical Translator. Carmela Pacchioni. 27:27

Oct. (See Localization, Medical, Technology [Internet Resources])

Medical translation is a very broad concept embracing as many different aspects as the subject matter itself. The list of dictionaries, reference books, and Web sites in this article may not be comprehensive, but I hope it will provide a few good leads for Italian medical translators dealing with the constantly developing world of medicine.

Style in Italian Technical Translations: Producing Documents of Adequate Quality. Roberto Crivello. 27:31 Oct. (See Localization)

A discussion of three main problems that prevent translators from producing documents of adequate quality when translating from English into Italian. The author will show how using semantic loan translations out of context, bureaucratic and alienating language, and a style different from that expected by the intended audience can lead to ineffective translations. Insights into possible solutions to these difficulties will be offered.

Theater Translations: Tommaso Salvini's Othello, An Italian Moor for the English-speaking Audience. Sasha Perugini. 27:40 Oct. (See Cross-Cultural Issues, Literary)

As the title suggests, the article discusses Tommaso Salvini's interpretation of the role of Othello, with particular attention to its reception in North America. The interest in this specific mise en schne arises from its evident cross-cultural foundation: an Italian actor interpreting a Moroccan character to an American audience through an English play, in turn, based on an Italian source. The author analyses one of the factors that contributed to the exceptional popularity of Salvini's portrayal of Othello in the United States.

Japanese

Japanese Viewed from Translator's Standpoint. Minoru Mochizuki. 27:32 March. (See Localization)

The demand for translation from English to Japanese and vice versa has gone through a tremendous change in the last 50 years due to the change in the relationship between Japan and the rest of the world, especially Japan's role in the world's economy and industrial activities. During the same period, the Japanese language has gone through some dramatic changes which are at least partially due to the Japanese government's language reform program. Another factor is an increased use of words of foreign origin in every aspect of life in Japan. Instead of being written in alphabets, these words are written in Kana (Japanese phonetic characters) and pronounced as close to the original pronunciations as the average Japanese can handle. This article tries to provide an overview of these rather recent changes, which are by no means over yet, to a language which has more than a millennium of recorded history, including poems, novels, and essays. It discusses how these changes are affecting relations between translators, proofreaders, editors, and clients (agencies and end users) primarily from the viewpoint of English to Japanese translation, and offers some suggestions for alleviating problems among them.

Knowledge-based Human Translation Human and Machine Translations: What Can We Learn from the Mistakes by Machine Translation? Shinil Cho. 27:36 March.

If native speakers do not understand a translated article without reading it in the original language, it is called an incorrect or poor translation. The article describes various issues and seeks clues to more "understandable" translations by using several examples from scientific and technological articles to suggest how to avoid poor translation.

Norwegian

The Norwegian Association of Literary Translators (Norsk Oversetterforening). Dag Heyerdahl Larsen. 27:36 Sept.

The Norwegian Association of Literary Translators (Norsk Oversetterforening) in Oslo, Norway was founded in 1948 for translators of literary and dramatic works. The Association's objectives are: to serve as a meeting place for Norwegian literary translators, to strive to enhance the quality of Norwegian literary translations, to protect the professional and financial interests of Norwegian literary translators as a group, and, insofar as possible, to provide assistance to individual members.

Portuguese

Maintaining Consistency in Medical-Technical Translations Catering to Different Target Groups and Clients. Patrik Swanljung. 27:16 Aug. (See Medical, Localization)

Translations for medical products need to be concise and consistent to minimize the possibility of a misinterpretation with serious consequences. But doctors, nurses, and patients do not use the same vocabulary, and some terminology is client-specific. A system using dedicated glossaries with a translation memory tool can keep your head cool.

Portuguese Translations: What Clients Need to Know. Lyris Wiedemann. 27:34 Aug. (See Client Education)

Brazilian and Continental Portuguese differ on phonetic, morphological, syntactic, and lexical levels. The two linguistic variants are products of distinctive historical contexts. It is imperative that translation companies and translators be sensitive to these differences and be capable of conveying them appropriately to prospective clients.

The Language of Taxes in Brazil. Danilo Nogueira. 27:37 Aug.

Translating a text on taxation is like filling the gaps in a jigsaw puzzle with pieces from a different puzzle. We will never find the piece we want, but we can always try to find the best fit. That is what makes the job fascinating.

The Function of Public Translators in Brazil. Virginia Randmer (translation and editing by Donna Sandin). 27:39 Aug.

Strict requirements govern the translation of documents for any kind of official purpose in Brazil, and U.S. translators asked to prepare documents for use there need to be aware of this.

Watch Out for Those "Twins!" Susana Greiss. 27:41 Aug.

The use of false cognates is one of the most common mistakes translators make-a mistake that can easily be avoided by doing more careful editing of one's own work (the other is following source-language syntax too closely). The following examination of common errors in Portuguese>English/English>Portuguese translation applies to other languages as well.

Lisbon World EXPO '98 with a Global Language Exposition Thrown in. João Roque Dias (translated by J.H. Phillips). 27:45 Aug.

This abbreviated report is an attempt to provide a glimpse of the other side of the World Expo '98 in Lisbon, Portugal: an exposition of hundreds of translations commissioned by organizers to accompany the 156 national and institutional exhibits and communicate their ideas and messages to attendees. This global language exposition will be seen by the more than 15 million visitors expected at EXPO '98 between May 22 and September 30, 1998. These translations will help attendees better understand the presentations on the world and oceans--truly the global heritage of all mankind.

Medical Translation in Brazil: Market Needs and Demands. Regina Alfarano. 27:48 Aug. (See Medical)

Brazil has undergone rapid change in recent years and must be prepared to absorb new technology to concurrently adapt domestic technology, lifestyles, consumer behavior, market policies, and legislation. To succeed, translation into and from Portuguese must serve as the medium through which new ideas are communicated.

Russian

Do U.S.-based Interpreters Have a Future? Michael K. Launer, Tara Lyn Launer, and Michele L. Pedro. 27:18 April. (See Interpreting, Ukranian)

This article presents a discussion of the market conditions for interpreting services in Russian and Ukrainian currently faced by interpreters based in the United States. A survey of these interpreters shows that many experienced a significant drop in work offers during 1997.

An American Remembers Cold War Moscow. Steven Shabad. 27:30 April. (See Cross-Cultural Issues)

A U.S.-born translator reminisces about the four years spent in a Moscow secondary school at the height of the Cold War which led him into the translating profession. He reflects on the powerful impact that living in the Soviet Union had on him, the culture shock he encountered on his return to the U.S., and some of the lessons he drew from his experiences.

An Interview with Peter Cassetta, Director of Product Development at Fingertip Software. Galina Raff. 27:39 April. (See Interviews)

A discussion of problems in Cyrillic/Slavic computing.

Russian Internet 202. Tanya Gesse. 27:42 April. (See Technology [Internet Resources])

How to surf the Web in Russian!

Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian: One Language or Several? David A. Stephenson. 27:27 April.

The identity of the primary language of the former Yugoslavia has become a highly politicized issue. A look at the evolution of the "one language" idea, the essential differences, and implications for the translator.

Spanish

The Seven Dangerous Construction Zones of Translating Business Letters from English into Spanish. Marian B. Labrum. 27:30 June.

The article focuses on the seven common pitfalls in translating business letters from English into Spanish. It discusses the common mistakes that a translator may make because of source language/cultural interference, and will provide specific solutions.

Horse-and-Carriage Versus Centaur: Conceptual Differences Between English and Spanish in Interpreting Traffic Cases. Daniel Jacobs. 27:34. June. (See Interpreting)

The conceptual differences between English and Spanish in the realm of automobile traffic. To interpret traffic cases effectively, the court interpreter needs to switch swiftly between the Spanish monist and English dualist concepts.

Is It Really So, Or Are You Just Assuming It's So? Verónica Albin. 27:37 June.

Prepositions are the bane of translators. This article explains the use of "de," as it pertains to doubt, when coupled with the verb "deber."

A Nice Little Suffix. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:38 June.

Have you ever noticed how often the suffix -ito seems to sprout on nouns and even adjectives in spoken Spanish? There's a lot more to this diminutive than smallness.

Divine Inspiration. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:39 June. (See Cross-Cultural Issues)

In colloquial speech, English-speakers tend to be more squeamish about invoking the "Man Upstairs" than Spanish-speakers, regardless of their religious convictions.

What is Development? English/Spanish Socioeconomic Terminology. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:20 July. (See International Development)

It may be relatively easy to find the Spanish and English equivalents of common socioeconomic terms, such as "real minimum wage" or "per capita GDP growth," but figuring out what they mean may not always be that simple. Through the use of concrete examples, this article reviews certain basic social and economic indicators to help translators without a background in economics understand what development is all about.

What's in a Name? Lenne Rosen-Kabe. 27:37 July. (See Interpreting)

To hyphenate or not? Spanish/English court interpreters are familiar with the confusion that results from asking a defendant for his "last name." The problem is cultural and linguistic. The solution may lie in clerical intervention.

The Cradle of Football. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:45 Sept. (See Cross-Cultural Issues)

Is it football or soccer? A linguistic mystery revealed.

Interpreting Skills Needed for Use with Hispanic Clients Who Are Hearing

Impaired or Deaf. Cruz A. Cancel. 27:42 Nov./Dec. (See Interpreting)

An overview of some of the skills needed by interpreters working with Hispanic clients who are deaf or hearing impaired.

"El Doctor Blanco de la Casa" or Why I Still Have a Job. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:47 Nov./Dec.

Is machine translation a threat to our livelihood? Recent evidence suggests perhaps not.

A Felicitous Expression. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 27:48 Nov./Dec. (See Cross-cultural)

Spanish-speakers tend to do more congratulating than English-speakers.

Swedish

The Swedish Association of Professional Translators (SFÖ). Sven Borei, Monica Bowen-Schrire, Gary Jaekel, and Anne Verbeke. 27:34 Sept.

After eight years of hard work, the Swedish Association of Professional Translators (SFÖ) continues to expand and refine its services to professional translators, both in Sweden and abroad.

Ukranian

Do U.S.-based Interpreters Have a Future? Michael K. Launer, Tara Lyn Launer, and Michele L. Pedro. 27:18 April. (See Interpreting, Russian)

This article presents a discussion of the market conditions for interpreting services in Russian and Ukrainian currently faced by interpreters based in the United States. A survey of these interpreters shows that many experienced a significant drop in work offers during 1997.

What is the Capital of Ukraine? Vadim Khazin. 27:24 April.

A brief introduction to the Ukrainian language is followed by a discussion of the rendering in English of geographical names from Ukraine and beyond. Which of the two approaches is better? The ATA should become the leader in defining the rules.

Literary

Hungarian Poetry: Part II. Louis Korda. 27:30 Jan. (See Hungarian)

Some notable figures in the history and development of Hungarian poetry.

Hungarian Poetry: Part III. Louis Korda. 27:34 Feb. (See Hungarian)

The Literary Translator: Years in the Making. Clifford E. Landers. 27:14 May.

What does it take to become a literary translator? The answer may surprise you.

Literary Translation for Techies, Technical Translation for Poets. Kirk Anderson. 27:15 May. (See Technology [General])

Although literary and technical translation are usually practiced by distinct parts of the translation community, the techniques, resources, and skills developed in one discipline often complement those cultivated in the other. This article addresses the often overlooked synergy between the two disciplines and attempts to encourage translators of any type to take advantage of this synergy by attempting translations in other disciplines.

Joyce's Molly Goes to Beijing: The Chinese Translation of Molly's Monologue in Ulysses. Aiping Zhang. 27: 20 May. (See Chinese)

With rhetorical devices like spacing, annotation, and vernacular voice, the translation of Molly's monologue in the first full-length Chinese version of Ulysses demonstrates possibilities of adding expressiveness and elegance to faithfulness by avoiding "interference" from cultural/lingual constraints and employing necessary by artful "alterations."

The Mind's Ear: Sound and Sense in Poetic Translation. Jo Anne Engelbert. 27:24 May.

Rhyme is often dismissed by translators as an adornment of poetry, lovely but expendable. This view ignores both how poems are made and how they mean. Rhyme is a powerful designer whose function must be taken into full account in preparing to translate.

Translating the Politically and the Culturally Sensitive. Jean Ouédraogo. 27:27 May. (See Cross-Cultural Issues)

An analysis of Nidra Poller's translation of Ivorian writer Ahmadou Kourouma's Monnè, outrages et défis. The novel, an attempt to capture the mood of French colonial politics in a West African kingdom, focuses on the use of language, thus making the indispensable interpreter one of the main protagonists. The study will explore Poller's translation of the interpreter's discourse in terms of its political and cultural accuracy and correctness.

Translating Cuban Voices. Peter Bush. 27:34 May.

Translators play a key role in facilitating communication within cultures. This article will explore the role of the translator in the making of an anthology. As this anthology is based on the writings from the Caribbean, the U.S., and England, it has the added interest of bringing into the English-speaking world the reality of a hybrid culture that now forms part of mainstream metropolitan culture.

Challenge of Translating "Literary Lunatics." Madeleine Velguth. 27:37 May. (See Neologisms)

A research project in the "inexact sciences" disguised as a novel presents a stiff challenge to the translator with a background in the humanities. When the novel is by wordsmith Raymond Queneau and the subjects of his research are given to creating neologisms, the challenge is doubled. Doubt as to whether her material was created by "literary lunatics" or by a playful Queneau sent the translator to France to retrace her author's research.

The Feline Element In Literature. Camilla Bozzoli. 27:40 May.

The feline has its place in literature, from Catullus' green-eyed lion to Baudelaire's domestic model of the sphinx. However, it has only been in modern times that entire poems have been devoted to the cat. Excerpts from Baudelaire, Rilke, Neruda, and Borges are used as examples of the finest tributes to this mysterious creature.

Diversity Awaits Its Public: German Literature and Translation in America. Ingo R. Stoehr. 27:43 May. (See Languages [German], Localization)

It is well-known observation that translations are never finished; however, this is far from being a truism. Actually, it sums up the state of German literature in translation in America, which can be appreciated in four steps. First, translation plays a minor role in the U.S. book market. Second, the challenge is to evaluate translation. Third, German literature is vital and diverse. And finally, its international and regional aspects make German literature interesting to American readers, but it is usually not available.

Influence of Markedness on Finnish-English Translation of Seitsemän veljestä. Melvin J. Luthy. 27:46 Sept. (See Languages [Finnish])

Both British and American English translators of the Finnish novel Seitsemän veljestä sometimes use positive verb conjugations in their translations even though the original text has negative conjugations. This article suggests this phenomenon can be explained by the notion of linguistic markedness (when translators tend to prefer less marked forms in the target language). Positive conjugations are less marked, so when an idea can be cast in that form, it often will be.

Theater Translations: Tommaso Salvini's Othello, An Italian Moor for the English-speaking Audience. Sasha Perugini. 27:40 Oct. (See Cross-Cultural Issues, Languages [Italian])

As the title suggests, the article discusses Tommaso Salvini's interpretation of the role of Othello, with particular attention to its reception in North America. The interest in this specific mise en schne arises from its evident cross-cultural foundation: an Italian actor interpreting a Moroccan character to an American audience through an English play, in turn, based on an Italian source. The author analyses one of the factors that contributed to the exceptional popularity of Salvini's portrayal of Othello in the United States.

Report on a Visit. István Eörsi (translated by Louis Korda). 27:37 Nov./Dec. (See Hungarian)

A translation of an original essay written by the well-known Hungarian writer, journalist, dramaturge, poet, and translator István Eörsi.

Localization

Cross-Cultural Issues in Specialist Communication. Faina Citkina. 27:26 Jan. (See Cross-Cultural Issues)

Cross-cultural divergences are always behind the translation scenes whenever we face profound misinterpretation. The article offers an outline of culture-determined parameters that specialists customarily operate from that can potentially trigger communication breakdown in two-language professional communication.

Japanese Viewed from Translator's Standpoint. Minoru Mochizuki. 27:32 March. (See Japanese)

The demand for translation from English to Japanese and vice versa has gone through a tremendous change in the last 50 years due to the change in the relationship between Japan and the rest of the world, especially Japan's role in the world's economy and industrial activities. During the same period, the Japanese language has gone through some dramatic changes which are at least partially due to the Japanese government's language reform program. Another factor is an increased use of words of foreign origin in every aspect of life in Japan. Instead of being written in alphabets, these words are written in Kana (Japanese phonetic characters) and pronounced as close to the original pronunciations as the average Japanese can handle. This article tries to provide an overview of these rather recent changes, which are by no means over yet, to a language which has more than a millennium of recorded history, including poems, novels, and essays. It discusses how these changes are affecting relations between translators, proofreaders, editors, and clients (agencies and end users) primarily from the viewpoint of English to Japanese translation, and offers some suggestions for alleviating problems among them.

Diversity Awaits Its Public: German Literature and Translation in America. Ingo R. Stoehr. 27:43 May. (See Literary, Localization)

It is well-known observation that translations are never finished; however, this is far from being a truism. Actually, it sums up the state of German literature in translation in America, which can be appreciated in four steps. First, translation plays a minor role in the U.S. book market. Second, the challenge is to evaluate translation. Third, German literature is vital and diverse. And finally, its international and regional aspects make German literature interesting to American readers, but it is usually not available.

Danger! Translator at Work! Translating Product Warning Labels from English into German. Anne Driesslein and Courtney Searls-Ridge. 27:47 May. (See German)

Some tips on how to prevent a warning label from becoming a potential disaster.

Border Crossings: Finding the Right Foreign Language Professional. Janice Becker. 27:19 June. (See Client Education)

Letting our clients educate us can be the first step to educating our clients. This article focuses on attorneys' experiences with our profession, and what they need to know in order to enhance their working relationships with translators. The process may be applicable to other professions and industries.

Middle East Languages in the Electronic Era. Norman M. Burkart. 27:25 July. (See Languages [Arabic])

What is different about Arabic, Hebrew, and Turkish from a translator's viewpoint? What about e-mail and Web pages into these languages?

Quality Control in Arabic Translation. Paul Robertson. 27:29 July. (See Languages [Arabic], Client Education)

Ineffective Arabic translation has a negative impact on Western business in the Arab world. The author reviews some of the problems and proposes that an editor with a wide-ranging mandate be included in the process.

Basic Principles for Translating Unknown Concepts. Paul Headland. 27:38 July.

New technology, with its corresponding vocabulary, abounds in today's world. The global village has created an increased need to communicate technological advancements across language boundaries. Such a scenario constantly challenges the translator to articulate concepts that have never been discussed in a given receptor language. Various types of translation (legal, medical, literary, etc.) each pose unique problems, but there are basic principles involved in the translation process which furnish insights on how to make these concepts understandable in various languages.

Maintaining Consistency in Medical-Technical Translations Catering to Different Target Groups and Clients. Patrik Swanljung. 27:16 Aug. (See Languages [Portuguese], Medical)

Translations for medical products need to be concise and consistent to minimize the possibility of a misinterpretation with serious consequences. But doctors, nurses, and patients do not use the same vocabulary, and some terminology is client-specific. A system using dedicated glossaries with a translation memory tool can keep your head cool.

End-User Perceptions of the Quality of Medical Instructions for Use Translated from Other Languages into Finnish. Kaj E. Rekola. 27:30 Aug. (See Languages [Finnish], Medical)

The pharmaceutical and medical appliances industry is a big consumer of translation services. Translations are frequently approved by the manufacturers' sales representatives in their respective countries. However, approval does not necessarily mean the translations are satisfactory for the end-user. A survey was performed among Finnish clinicians to examine the end-user satisfaction of translated instructions for use and operation manuals. The questions were focused on overall quality, accuracy, readability, conformance to clinical jargon, and errors that could have adverse consequences.

Tips and Resources for the Italian Medical Translator. Carmela Pacchioni. 27:27

Oct. (See Languages [Italian], Medical, Technology [Internet Resources])

Medical translation is a very broad concept embracing as many different aspects as the subject matter itself. The list of dictionaries, reference books, and Web sites in this article may not be comprehensive, but I hope it will provide a few good leads for Italian medical translators dealing with the constantly developing world of medicine.

Style in Italian Technical Translations: Producing Documents of Adequate Quality. Roberto Crivello. 27:31 Oct. (See Languages [Italian])

A discussion of three main problems that prevent translators from producing documents of adequate quality when translating from English into Italian. The author will show how using semantic loan translations out of context, bureaucratic and alienating language, and a style different from that expected by the intended audience can lead to ineffective translations. Insights into possible solutions to these difficulties will be offered.

Writing for a Global Audience. SimulTrans, L.L.C. 27:15 Nov./Dec. (See Client Education)

Learning to write for an international clientele.

Medical

The Role of a Lay Panel in Foreign Language Instrument Development. Diane M. Novy, Hector Garza, and Diana H. Rintala. 27:25 Nov./Dec.

A seven-member lay panel, each of whom had a physical disability, customized Spanish translations of the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART) and the RAND-SF36 to the dialect commonly spoken by Mexican-Americans. Ten categories were created to systematically describe the modifications made by the lay panel. The customized modifications made by the lay panel highlight the importance of heightened sensitivity to the impact of culture and language in instrument development.

Tips and Resources for the Italian Medical Translator. Carmela Pacchioni. 27:27

Oct. (See Languages [Italian], Technology [Internet Resources])

Medical translation is a very broad concept embracing as many different aspects as the subject matter itself. The list of dictionaries, reference books, and Web sites in this article may not be comprehensive, but I hope it will provide a few good leads for Italian medical translators dealing with the constantly developing world of medicine.

Maintaining Consistency in Medical-Technical Translations Catering to Different Target Groups and Clients. Patrik Swanljung. 27:16 Aug. (See Localization, Languages [Portuguese])

Translations for medical products need to be concise and consistent to minimize the possibility of a misinterpretation with serious consequences. But doctors, nurses, and patients do not use the same vocabulary, and some terminology is client-specific. A system using dedicated glossaries with a translation memory tool can keep your head cool.

Medical Interpreting from the Grass-roots: Strategies for Social Change in Different Health Care Environments. Cornelia E. Brown. 27:19 Aug.

The author's presentation at the 1997 ATA conference frames this discussion of strategies used by grass-roots organizations across the U.S. to establish thriving fee-for-service language banks. This survey, culled from phone interviews, is meant to help newly founded organizations connect and succeed.

Diagnostic Tests in the Clinical Laboratory: TPT = The Perplexed Translator? Manfred Winter. 27:23 Aug.

Within the field of medical translation, texts relating to clinical laboratory analyses often present themselves as a challenging and intimidating maze of acronyms, abbreviations, and terminology. This article will try to provide some guidance by presenting a condensed overview to the terms and tests most often encountered in this area. The scope is restricted to analyses performed on blood and urine; common German terms are given where applicable.

End-User Perceptions of the Quality of Medical Instructions for Use Translated from Other Languages into Finnish. Kaj E. Rekola. 27:30 Aug. (See Languages [Finnish], Localization)

The pharmaceutical and medical appliances industry is a big consumer of translation services. Translations are frequently approved by the manufacturers' sales representatives in their respective countries. However, approval does not necessarily mean the translations are satisfactory for the end-user. A survey was performed among Finnish clinicians to examine the end-user satisfaction of translated instructions for use and operation manuals. The questions were focused on overall quality, accuracy, readability, conformance to clinical jargon, and errors that could have adverse consequences.

Medical Translation in Brazil: Market Needs and Demands. Regina Alfarano. 27:48 Aug. (See Portuguese)

Brazil has undergone rapid change in recent years and must be prepared to absorb new technology to concurrently adapt domestic technology, lifestyles, consumer behavior, market policies, and legislation. To succeed, translation into and from Portuguese must serve as the medium through which new ideas are communicated.

Tips and Resources for the Italian Medical Translator. Carmela Pacchioni. 27:27

Oct. (See Languages [Italian], Localization, Technology [Internet Resources])

Medical translation is a very broad concept embracing as many different aspects as the subject matter itself. The list of dictionaries, reference books, and Web sites in this article may not be comprehensive, but I hope it will provide a few good leads for Italian medical translators dealing with the constantly developing world of medicine.

Neologisms

Challenge of Translating "Literary Lunatics." Madeleine Velguth. 27:37 May. (See Literary)

A research project in the "inexact sciences" disguised as a novel presents a stiff challenge to the translator with a background in the humanities. When the novel is by wordsmith Raymond Queneau and the subjects of his research are given to creating neologisms, the challenge is doubled. Doubt as to whether her material was created by "literary lunatics" or by a playful Queneau sent the translator to France to retrace her author's research.

Retrofitting the Language. Charles M. Stacy. 27:40 June.

Neologisms often arise in pairs. The first member of a pair describes a new version of something and the second member re-names the superseded version. When oil was first refined into lubricating oil and other products, a new term had to be devised to describe unrefined oil. The solution: crude.

Obituaries

Maria Brown (1931-1998). Mike Stacy. 27:13 Nov./Dec.

In Memoriam: Bill Bertsche (1918-1998). Henry Fischbach. 27:18 Sept.

Professional Development

Marketing Your Certification. Julien Marquis. 27:16 Jan. (See Certification)

In a time of change and networking on the information superhighway, translators and interpreters are still helping peoples, cultures, and businesses to communicate. In "the global village" our image should reflect our professionalism, and our performance should reflect the same quality of service that would be expected throughout the cybereconomy. How can we achieve such a de facto recognition of professionalism within the Regional Centre for North America of FIT territory (which covers the economic territory of NAFTA)? Using the framework, organization and increasing credibility of our existing associations, how can we promote our business and professional certification status within the ethics of our profession to achieve tangible results?

The Business of Freelancing. Mordecai Schreiber. 27:20 Feb. (See Freelance)

The 1980s saw tremendous growth in the translation business. The 1990s have seen further growth due to the new global economy and the electronic revolution. Now more than ever before, freelance translators must sharpen their business skills to succeed.

The Professionalization of Community Interpreting. Holly Mikkelson. 27:14 March. (See Interpreting)

Community interpreting, which includes court and medical interpreting, is following the typical pattern of a profession in its infancy. In the beginning it is characterized by a lack of standards for training and practice, disorganization and disunity among practitioners, a lack of recognition of the profession among clients and the public, and poor working conditions. These circumstances improve as practitioners unite and form professional associations to impose discipline and standardization and to achieve recognition through education, legislation, and public relations. This article will define the terms "community interpreting" and "profession," present a comparative analysis of community interpreting and other professions, and recommend a course of action to promote the profession in the medium and long terms.

Professional Development: Field-Specific Knowledge. James L. Davis. 27:27 March.

Field-specific knowledge is essential in order to do high-quality work. Translators who wish to maintain their productivity should follow an ongoing program that consists of a combination of formal education, self-study, and involvement in professional/technical societies.

Professional Recognition: Why Do Translators Lack it? Slava Fedorov. 27:16 June.

Unlike many others offering professional services, translators still seem to be perceived as individuals who speak five words of a foreign language and cannot get a regular job. Who is to blame and what can be done to change this perception?

A Layman's Guide to Job Prospecting. Jon Weiner. 27:22 June.

Translators and interpreters who are too busy to seek out new business may be overlooking a great prospecting source right in front of them. Look for new jobs in your present assignment.

Time to Get A Round "Tuit." Michael R. Cárdenas. 27:24 June.

Increase your visibility by lending a helping hand.

Project Management

Compatible Partners: How Do You Identify Them? Michael Kambas. 27:20 Jan.

Have you ever been caught in a conflict between a translator, an editor, and a project manager? The chief qualities you want to look for when selecting your partners could be summed up in this acrostic: COMPATIBLE.

Letting Translators Translate: The Role of a Project Manager. Sarah B. Thibeau. 27:14 Feb.

What else does a project manager at a translation agency do besides mark up the price of a translator's work? This article will illustrate the ways in which translation agency project managers contribute to better translations by allowing translators to focus on what they do besttranslation. Working with translation agencies rather than with individual translators appeals to many clients for the same reasons that it appeals to translators. Some of these reasons, as well as the benefits to translators and clients, will also be outlined.

Project Management for Independent Contractors. Kelly Jones. 27:18 Feb. (See Freelance)

Translators as independent contractors need to continuously hone their business skills. This article will discuss some of the project management and communication skills that help every translator build and maintain successful working relationships, whether they work for agencies, direct clients, or a combination. Topics covered will include time management, document prioritization, and business administration tips. These strategies can ease any translator's life and improve their image with clients. Best of all, these practices do not have to conflict with the flexibility independent contractors crave.

How to Manage a Successful Translation Team. Riccardo Schiaffino. 27:36 Oct.

This article contains some advice, based on personal experience, on the management of a translation team, with special attention to the selection and handling of personnel. Although the article deals specifically with the management of staff translators, it should also prove useful for the leaders of more informal translation teams.

Cultural Aspects of Management. Melinda L. Cain. 27:38 Oct. (See Cross-Cultural Issues)

This is a sidebar to Riccardo Schiaffino's article, and provides additional information on the management of a small team of professionals, such as a translation team, specifically in regards to the issues ensuing from cultural differences.

Technology

(General)

Literary Translation for Techies, Technical Translation for Poets. Kirk Anderson. 27:15 May. (See Literary)

Although literary and technical translation are usually practiced by distinct parts of the translation community, the techniques, resources, and skills developed in one discipline often complement those cultivated in the other. This article addresses the often overlooked synergy between the two disciplines and attempts to encourage translators of any type to take advantage of this synergy by attempting translations in other disciplines.

Scripts and Fonts for the Translator. Arle Lommel, Alan K. Melby, and Luis Miguel. 27:46 July.

An explanation of some main concepts encountered when working in different languages on the computer, both when dealing with text input and handling, and when dealing with the format and output of manuals, brochures, and books in foreign languages.

The Year 2000 and Translators. Alan Melby. 27:22 Nov./Dec.

Where to find the latest information on the Year 2000 problem.

(Electronic Dictionaries)

Electronic Dictionaries: A Different Viewpoint. Jim Walker. 27:37 April.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of electronic dictionaries in comparison with hard copies? It depends on whether your source text is in electronic form or on paper.

(Internet Resources)

Russian Internet 202. Tanya Gesse. 27:42 April. (See Languages [Russian])

How to surf the Web in Russian!

Internet Resources: Guidelines for Finding Reliable Information Online. Monica Sawyer. 27:52 Aug.

With good searching skills and the right Web sites, the Internet can become the translator's personal library.

Tips and Resources for the Italian Medical Translator. Carmela Pacchioni. 27:27

Oct. (See Languages [Italian], Localization, Medical)

Medical translation is a very broad concept embracing as many different aspects as the subject matter itself. The list of dictionaries, reference books, and Web sites in this article may not be comprehensive, but I hope it will provide a few good leads for Italian medical translators dealing with the constantly developing world of medicine.

(Problem Solving)

Strange Characters: Diacriticals in Czech and Other East European Languages. Jiri Stejskal. 27:34 April.

A discussion on how to work with Czech and other East European languages which use the Latin alphabet with diacritical marks on the three most common computer platforms. Advice on how to convert documents in these languages from one platform to another is offered.

(Software)

Using of WordPerfect©5.1 (DOS) for Translation into Rare Languages. George Primov. 27:18 Oct.

This article deals with enhancing the existing, built-in capabilities of a somewhat neglected, though immensely powerful word processor, WordPerfect 5.1 for DOS. It describes a spell-checker for Bulgarian, a keyboard layout with lots of useful macro capabilities and a set of conversion programs that allow transforming of WordPerfect characters to and from MS Word for Windows and to and from DOS.

Meeting the Challenge of Translating Software Code: Tricks and Techniques of the Trade. Franco P. Zearo. 27:22 Oct.

In their daily practice, translators of software code are constantly faced with the need to overcome the obstacles posed by software created by English-speaking programmers. However, the translation of software code does not have to be a frustrating task; on the contrary, it can be rather challenging. This article explains a number of tricks and techniques that can help the translators "break the code."

LinguaLinks®: A Powerful Computer Environment for Translation. Peter J. Silzer. 27:50 July.

LinguaLinks® (LL), an integrated system of software and linguistic databases, provides a rich computer environment for translators to work in the language(s) of their choice. The LL "library" provides thousands of pages of background information on a wide range of topics, and the LL "workshops" provide the tools and templates for individualized language analysis. This article discusses how LL can help translators in a variety of ways.

Translation Agencies, Bureaus

Who Put the "OY" in Freud? Karyn Tasens. 27:13 Feb. (See Freelance)

A summary of "Group Therapy Session for Problem-Sharing by Translation Company Owners/Managers" which was presented at the ATA conference in San Francisco.

Translation Pedagogy

A review of Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator: An Accelerated Course. John Ellison. 27:50 Oct.

Translation Standards

Experts Say National Standards Can Bolster U.S. Translation. Tom O'Keeffe. 27:21 Sept. (See Client Education)

The peculiar tyranny of translation has hovered over every assignment since Saint Jerome. How can clients be sure of quality? What makes a quality translation anyway? Led by ATA and the National Foreign Language Center, U.S. translation leaders believe the time has come to grapple with this question. At a June meeting in Washington, DC, some 30 experts set in motion the development of national quality standards under the American Society of Testing and Materials.


Miscellaneous/Association-Related

Association News

(Certification)

Marketing Your Certification. Julien Marquis. 27:16 Jan. (See Professional Development)

In a time of change and networking on the information superhighway, translators and interpreters are still helping peoples, cultures, and businesses to communicate. In "the global village" our image should reflect our professionalism, and our performance should reflect the same quality of service that would be expected throughout the cybereconomy. How can we achieve such a de facto recognition of professionalism within the Regional Centre for North America of FIT territory (which covers the economic territory of NAFTA)? Using the framework, organization and increasing credibility of our existing associations, how can we promote our business and professional certification status within the ethics of our profession to achieve tangible results?

The ATA Certification Exam: What to Expect. Teresa S. Waldes. 27:42 June.

Some tips to help you better prepare yourself for the certification exam.

(ATA Division Reports)

Japanese Translation Today, Inside and Outside the ATA. Jon Johanning. 27:29 March.

A short (and personal) look at where the Japanese Language Division and Japanese translation are today.

Spanish Language Division: A Message from the Administrator. Alicia Marshall. 27:27 June.

How to make the most out of your division membership, plus a report on the Second Latin American Translation and Interpretation Congress recently held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Languages in the Nordic Zone. Edith Matteson. 27:26 Sept.

"What is your real name and what do you really do?" The Nordic Division currently has 130 members and is growing steadily.

Communiqué

Highlights of the ATA Board of Directors Meeting, November 8-9, 1997, San Francisco, California. 27:10 Feb.

Conference Report

ATA Conference Review. Edith Losa. 27:11 Jan.

Impressions of the 38th Annual Conference.

First-timers Find ATA Conference Well Worth It. Ann Sherwin. 27:11 Feb.

Conference attendees share impressions of their first ATA Annual Conference.

(National Conference Reports)

Joint National Committee For Languages Report. Peter W. Krawutschke. 27:14 July.

A report on the recent Delegate Assembly of the Joint National Committee for Languages.

Translation Services Directory

The New TSD: More Inclusive and More Available. Alan Melby. 27:14 Nov/Dec.

Plans for new online Translation Services Directory are underway.

Voting Rights

ATA for the 21st Century: Where should we be headed? Voting Rights and Other Issues. 27:12 March.

A letter from the ATA Ad-Hoc Membership Categories, Rights, and Benefits Committee.


Columns

Dictionary Reviews

The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary

Author: R.S.McGregor. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Publication Date: July 1997. ISBN: 0-19-864339-X. Price: $25. Reviewed by: Dileep Karanth. 27:36 Jan.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Acronyms, Initialisms, Abbreviations and Symbols

Compiled and edited by: Fioretta Benedetto Mattia. Publisher: Elsevier Science B.V., Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-444-82589-4. Reviewed by: Sharlee Merner Bradley. 27:37 Jan.

A Dictionary of Euphemisms

Author: R. W. Holder. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of publication: Oxford and New York. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 0-19-280051-5. Price: $13.95. Reviewed by: Mark Juditz. 27:37 Jan.

Vocabulaire de la sécurité et des virus informatiques -- Bulletin de terminologie 226 (Vocabulary of Computer Security and Viruses Terminology Bulletin 226)

Author: François Richard. Publisher: Terminology and Documentation Directorate, Translation Bureau, Public Works and Government Services Canada. Publication Date: 1995. ISBN: 0-660-59791-8. Price: $29.95 in Canada, $29.95 in U.S. Available from: Bookstores throughout Canada or by mail from Communication Group - Publishing, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0S9, Tel: (819) 997-2560. Reviewed by: Yves Quervel. 27:42 Feb.

The World Bank Glossary (English-Spanish/Spanish-English)

Publisher: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 0-8213-3595-2. Price: $49.95. Available from: World Bank Publications, Dulles, VA. 27:42 Feb.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Financial and Economic Terms (English-Spanish/Spanish-English)

Authors: Martha Uriona, José Daniel Kwacz. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN: 0-444-82256-9. Price: $172. Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 27:42 Feb.

Le guide du rédacteur

Publisher: Public Works and Government Services Canada-Publishing, Ottawa, Canada K1A 0S9. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 0-660-9500-5. Price: $23.95. Available from: Canadian bookstores or by contacting Groupe Communications Canada, Tel: (819) 956-4800, Fax: (819) 994-1498 or 1-800-565-7757, or www.publications.pwgsc.gc.ca. Reviewed by: Michel Meunier. 27:43 Feb.

French Usage, The Do's and Don'ts of Writing and Speaking French

Authors: Richard Wakely, Henri Béjoint. Publisher: Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 0-19-864334-9. Price: $7.95. Reviewed by: Michel Meunier. 27:43 Feb.

English-Japanese Dictionary of Finance

Publisher: AMCD (Publishers) Ltd., Cheshire, England. Publication Date: 1994. ISBN: 0-9515066-2-5. Price: $25. Reviewed by: Yukako Y. Seltzer. 27:45 March.

Wörterbuch der Chemie/Dictionary of Chemistry, Deutsch-Englisch, English-German

Author: Antonin Kuera. Publisher: Oscar Brandstetter Verlag - Wiesbaden. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN:3-87097-172-X. Price: $165. Available from: i.b.d. Ltd., Kinderhook, NY. Reviewed by: S. Edmund Berger. 27:46 March.

Elseviers Dictionary of Financial Terms

Publisher: Elsevier. Publication Date: 1997. Price: $250. ISBN: 0-444-89950-2. Reviewed by: Tom West. 27:47 March.

The Oxford English-Russian Dictionary

Edited by: P.S. Falla. Publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press. Publication Date: 1984. ISBN: 0-19-864192-3. Price: $29.95. Reviewed by: Vadim Chaoxian. 27:46 April.

Russian-English/English Russian Dictionary Pipeline Technology and Transportation of Hydrocarbons

Publisher: Russian Business Consultants, El Cerrito, CA. Publication Date: 1994. Reviewed by: Alexandre Mikheev. 27:46 April.

English-Russian-English Dictionary of Petroleum Business and Commerce

Author: Arthur Stepanyan. Publisher: Russian Business Consultants, El Cerrito, CA. Publication Date: 1994. Reviewed by: Alexandre Mikheev. 27:46 April.

Russian-English Dictionary of Oilfield Technology

Author: Kirill Izvekov. Publisher: Russian Business Consultants, El Cerrito, CA. Publication date: 1993. Reviewed by: Alexandre Mikheev. 27:46 April.

Routledge French Technical Dictionary (On diskette or CD-ROM)

Volume 1: French-English. ISBN: 0-415-13343-2. Price: $159. Volume 2: English-French. ISBN: 0-415-13347-5. $159 (Each volume available on diskettes for $159, both volumes available on CD-ROM for $295). Publisher: Routledge 1-(800)-634-7064. Publication Date: 1996. Reviewed by: Yves Quervel. 27:47 April.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Information Technology (English-German-French)

Authors: J.P. Hoepelman, R. Mayer, and J. Wagner. Publisher: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-444-88410-6. Price: $169.75 in the U.S., through i.b.d. Ltd., Kinderhook, NY, 1-800-343-3531. Reviewed by: Claudia Kellersch. 27:54 May.

Wörterbuch der industriellen Technik, CD-ROM (Dictionary of Engineering and Technology on CD-ROM , German-English, English-German)

Author: Richard Ernst. Publisher: Oscar Brandstetter Verlag, Weisbadeb, FRG. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 3-87097-182-7. Price: $295 in the U.S., through i.b.d. Ltd., Kinderhook, NY, 1-800-343-3531. Reviewed by: Claudia Kellersch. 27:54 May.

German Dictionary of Medicine (Volume 1, German English)

Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Publisher: Langensheidt-Routledge, New York. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-415-17130-X. Price: $150 (hardbound). Reviewed by: Leon McMorrow. 27:55 May.

Oxford Dictionary of the World

Author: David Munro. Publisher: Oxford University Press, New York. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-19-860060-7. Price: $16.95 (paper). Reviewed by: Ann C. Sherwin. 27:56 May.

Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Editor: John Bowker. Publisher: Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN: 0-19-213965-7. Price: $45 (cloth). Reviewed by: Ann C. Sherwin. 27:57 May.

Vocabulaire Trilingue des Véhicules de Transport Routier

Trilingual Vocabulary of Road Transport Vehicles

Vocabulario Trilingüe de Autotransporte de Carga

Author: Office de langue française (original Canadian French version), translation by Translation Bureau, Ministry of Public Works and Government Services. Publisher: Les Publications du Québec, Case postale 1005, Québec, Canada. Publication Date: 1995. ISBN: 2-551-16391-9. Price: CDN $29.95 + CDN $4 shipping. Reviewed by: Harvie Jordan. 27:47 June.

The Wiley Dictionary of Civil Engineering and Construction

Author: Felicitas Kennedy. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN:0-471-12246-7 (cloth: alk. paper).Price: $55 (available through specialized dictionary suppliers). Reviewed by: Sergio Graciano. 27:48 June.

Dictionary of Information Technology Spanish-English/English-Spanish

Author: Otto J. Vollnhals. Publisher: Oscar Brandstetter Verlag, Wiesbaden. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN:3-87097-174-6. Price: $139 (hardbound). Reviewed by: Alicia Gordon. 27:49 June.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Archaeological Materials and Archaeometry

Author: Z. Goffer (Soreq Research Center, Yavne, Israel). Publisher: Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN:0-444-81949-5. Price:$172. Reviewed by: Nicholas Hartmann. 27:49 June.

English-Arabic/Arabic-English Translation: A Practical Guide

Author: Basil Hatim. Publisher: Saqi Books, London. Publication Date:1997.ISBN: 0-86356-341-4 (hb); 0-86356-155-1 (pbk). Reviewed By: Shuckran Kamal. 27:53 July.

Export Financing and Insurance Vocabulary English-French-Spanish

Terminology Bulletin 230

Publishers: Janeen Johnston-Des Rochers, Public Works and Government Services, Canada. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN:0-660-59978-3. Price: $32.95 (softcover). Reviewed by: Alicia Gordon. 27:54 July.

Routledge-Langenscheidt German Dictionary of Electrical Engineering and Electronics/Wörterbuch Elektrotechnik und Elektronik Englisch

Author: Peter-Klaus Budig et al. Publisher: Routledge, London/New York. Publication Date: Vol.1 (5th edition) 1998; Vol. 2 (6th edition) 1997. ISBN: 0-41517132-6 (Vol. 1: German-English); 0-415-1731-8 (Vol.2: English-German). Price: $110, each volume.

Reviewed by: Frank Dietz. 27:54 July.

TERMIUM® Translation Bureau/Bureau de la traduction

Publisher: Public Works and Government Services - Canada. Price: $395. Reviewed by: Françoise Herrmann. 27:53 Aug.

Stedman's Electronic Medical Dictionary 3.0 (Windows version on seven diskettes. A Macintosh version is also available, as is a hybrid Windows/Mac CD-ROM)

ISBN: 0-683-18268-4. Price: $79.95. Reviewed by: Albert G. Bork. 27:54 Aug.

Routledge's Diccionario Técnico Inglés, Spanish Technical Dictionary

(Volume 2, English-Spanish)

Publisher: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4ENAER. Simultaneously published in the U.S. and Canada by Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY, 10001. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-415-11273-7. Price: $150. Reviewed by: Beatriz Quintana. 27:55 Aug.

L&H Miljøordbog, dansk-engelsk, engelsk-dansk L&H Dictionary of Environmental Terms, (Danish-English, English-Danish)

Publisher: L&H Ordbøger, Copenhagen. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 87-7845-110-8. Price: $180. Available from: L&H Ordbøger, Siljangade 6, 2300 København S, Denmark; Tel: (011) 32-96-49-49; Fax: (011) 32-96-98-48; E-mail: lhpubl@post4.tele.dk; Web site: www.lhpublishing.dk. Reviewed by: Robert T. Creutz. 27:47 Sept.

L&H Informatik Ordbog, dansk-engelsk, engelsk-dansk L&H Informatics Dictionary, (Danish-English, English-Danish)

Publisher: L&H Ordbøger, Copenhagen. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 87-7845-104-3. Price. $180. Available from: L&H Ordbøger, Siljangade 6, 2300 København S, Denmark; Tel: (011) 32-96-49-49; Fax: (011) 32-96-98-48; E-mail:lhpubl@post4.tele.dk; Web site: www.lhpublishing.dk. Reviewed by: Robert T. Creutz. 27:47 Sept.

Comprehensive Dictionary of Petroleum Science and Technology

(English-French, French-English)

Authors: Magdaleine Moureau, Gerard Brace. Publisher. Institut français du pétrole, Editions Technip, 27 Rue Ginoux 75737 Paris Cedex 15 France. Publication Date: 1993. ISBN. 2-7108-0648-7. Price: $259. Available from: i.b.d, Ltd., Kinderhook, NY, (800)-343-3531. Reviewed by: Patricia Bobeck. 27:48 Sept.

The BBI Dictionary of English Word Combinations

Compiled by: Morton Benson, Evelyn Benson, and Robert Ilson. Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN: 1-55619-520-6, 1-55619-521-4. Price: $38 (hardback), $19.95 (paperback). Reviewed by: Tony Beckwith. 27:49 Sept.

Grafisk digital design ordbog

Publisher: L&H Ordbøger. ISBN: 87-7845-108-6. Price: $225. Reviewed by:

Yngve Roennike. 27:50 Sept.

The Oxford Italian Minidictionary

Publisher: New York: Oxford University Press. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-19-860009-7. Price: $6.50, softcover. Reviewed by: Leon McMorrow. 27:54 Oct.

The Canadian Style, Revised and Expanded A Guide to Writing and Editing

Publisher: Dundurn Press Limited in cooperation with Public Works and Government Services Canada, Translation Bureau, Toronto, Oxford. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 1-55002-276-8. Available from: Dundurn Press Limited, Toronto, and Dundurn Press Limited, Buffalo, NY. Reviewed by: Michel Meunier. 27:54 Oct.

French Correspondence: Guide to Communications in French

Edited by: Natalie Pomier. Publisher: Oxford Hachette/Oxford University Press, printed in Great Britain. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-19-860010-0. Price: $7.95. Reviewed by: Michel Meunier. 27:55 Oct.

German-English Dictionary of Idioms

Authors: Hans Schemann and Paul Knight. Publisher: Routledge, London. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 0-415-14199-0. Price: $99.95. Reviewed by: Tom West. 27:55 Oct.

Dictionary of Contemporary French Connectors

Author: James Grieve. Publisher: Routledge, London. Publication Date: 1996. ISBN: 0-415-13538-9. Price: $69.95. Reviewed by: Tom West. 27:56 Oct.

Diccionario de términos económicos, financieros y comerciales (English-Spanish/Spanish-English)

Authors: Enrique Alcaraz Varó, Brian Hughes. Publisher: Editorial Ariel, S.A. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 84-344-0507-5. Price: $96. Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 27:50 Nov./Dec.

Spanish Dictionary of Business, Commerce, and Finance (Spanish-English/English-Spanish)

Author: Emilio G. Muñoz Castro. Publisher: Routledge, New York, NY. Publication Date: 1998. ISBN: 0-415-09393-7. Price: $99 (Also available on CD-ROM for $135). Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 27:50 Nov./Dec.

Diccionario de términos financieros y de inversión

(Definitions in Spanish with English equivalent/English-Spanish glossary)

Authors: Francisco Mochon Morcillo, Rafael Isidro Aparicio. Publisher: McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de España, S.A., Madrid. Publication Date: 1998. ISBN: 84-481-2005-1. Price: $42. Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 27:50 Nov./Dec.

Routledge Spanish Technical Dictionary on CD-ROM (Spanish-English/English-Spanish)

(Windows version)

Publisher: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, U.K., 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001. ISBN: 0-415-13973-2. Publication Date: 1998. Price: $330. Reviewed by: Robert A. Croese. 27:52 Nov./Dec.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Pests and Diseases in Useful Plants: English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Dutch, and Latin

Author: Ernest Eylenbosch. Publisher: Elsevier. Publication Date: 1995.

ISBN: 0-444-88066-6. Reviewed by: Loie Feuerle. 27:53 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary: Agriculture, Forestry, and Horticulture (German-English)

Author: Peter Mühle. Publisher: Verlag Alexandre Hatier, Berlin-Paris. Publication Date:

1993. ISBN: 3-86117-025-6. Reviews by: Loie Feuerle. 27:54 Nov./Dec.

Elsevier's Dictionary of Acronyms, Initialisms, Abbreviations, and Symbols

Publisher: Elsevier. Publication Date: 1997. ISBN: 0-444-82589-4. Reviewed by:

Sharlee Bradley. 27:54 Nov./Dec.

Editorial

NAFTA and Translators. Garry Guan. 27:14 Jan.

NAFTA did not include translation services in its agreement on professional services, although it might have brought an increased demand in French and Spanish translation services. This should serve us as an alarm. It is high time for us, the professional translation industry as a whole, to speed up our effort to achieve professionalism.

Escaping the Poverty Trap. Eric Weinberger. 27:21 Sept. (See Freelance)

Low fees are bad for you. High fees are good for you...and also for your clients. How to make the transition. How to escape the poverty trap.

From the Executive Director (Walter Bacak)

The Chronicle and the New Year. 27:5 Jan.
Certification Program Changes. 27:5 Feb.
Graduation. 27:7 March.
ATA's Latest Additions. 27:6 April.
Highlights from the March Board Meeting. 27:7 May.
Numbers. 27:7 June.
Professional Recognition. 27:7 July.
Rates. 27:7 Aug.
Highlights from the July Board Meeting. 27:7 Sept.
Conference Time. 27:7 Oct.
November Board Meeting Highlights. 27:7 Nov./Dec.

From the President (Muriel Jérôme-O'Keeffe)

Starting off on the Right Foot. 27:6 Jan.
The Big Picture and You. 27:6 Feb.
Who Are We? 27:8 March.
Certification: Changing of the Guard. 27:7 April.
ATA's three-Year Strategic Plan. 27:8 May.
Bertsches Bestowed Honorary Membership. 27:8 June.
The Need for and Impact of National Standards in Translation. 27:8 July.
Staying the Course. 27:8 Aug.
Chapter and Group Relations. 27:8 Sept.
Association Business at the Conference. 27:8 Oct.
Looking Ahead. 27:8 Nov./Dec.

From the President-elect (Ann G. Macfarlane)

Pines, Palmettos, and Pelicans. 27:10 March.
The Nitty-Gritty Details. 27:8 April.
Avoid Singing Waiters. 27:10 May.
No Shirt, No Shoes, No Problem. 27:10 June.
Community/Cultural/Dialogue/Ad Hoc...Interpreter. 27:10 July.
The Ayr is Clear and Sweet. 27:10 Aug.
Wild Tales from the Carolinas and Other Pleasures. 27:10 Sept.
Conference Organizing Made Simple. 27:10 Oct.
Wowza! What a Week! 27:10 Nov./Dec.

From the Treasurer (Monique-Paule Tubb)

Thank You! 27:7 Jan.

Letters to the Editor

Rebuttal to Dieter Walltermann's essay in the October issue of the ATA-Chronicle "Coping with Sexism and Gender Bias in the German Language." Rainer Hoeke. 27:8 Feb.

Response to Garry Guan's Op/ed (January 1998). J. Henry Phillips. 27:10 April.

ATA Conferences: Cherished Kingdom of the Spoken Word. Maria Chavez. 27:10 April.

Comments from President-elect Ann G. Macfarlane Regarding the Annual Conference. Ann G. Macfarlane. 27:11 April.

Lost and Found in Translation. Eric Wilson. 27:11 April.

ATA Certification Test an Enjoyable Experience. Laura A. Garcia. 27:12 Nov./Dec.

An American in Cold War Russia. Anna Gurevich. 27:17 Sept.

Lost and found in Translation. Hilary Fayen Higgins. 27:12 June.

The Definition of Professionalism. J. Henry Phillips. 27:13 June.

Value of Product Warning Labels. Ben Teague. 27:12 July.

Humor and Translation by Mark Herman

27:44 Jan.
27:49 Feb.
27:52 March.
27:52 April.
27:61 May.
27:53 June.
27:59 July.
27:61 Aug.
27:55 Sept.
27:60 Oct.
27:58 Nov./Dec.

Miss Interpreter Speaks...by Laura E. Wolfson

27:40 March.
27:44 June.

Our Colleagues Write...by Gertrud Champe

27:42 Feb.
27:43 March.
27:44 April.
27:52 May.
27:46 June.
27:52 July.
27:46 Sept.
27:58 Oct.

Translation Inquirer by John Decker

27:40 Jan.
27:46 Feb.
27:49 March.
27:50 April.
27:59 May.
27:51 June.
27:57 July.
27:57 Aug.
27:53 Sept.
27:58 Oct.
27:56 Nov./Dec.