2001 Chronicle Index
(Feature Articles by Subject)

Agencies, Bureaus,
and Corporations
Art
Automotive

Conference Reports
(worldwide)
Contracts
Dictionaries
Engineering Financial
Incorporation Independent Contracting
Interpreting
Languages
Legal Literary
Localization Medical
Mentoring Patents
Professional Devlopment/
Public Relations

Project Managment
Proofreading

Quality Assurance

Religion Semantics
Software and Online Resources Special Needs
Subtitling Travel and Tourism
Voice-over Women's Studies

MONTHLY COLUMNS

MISCELLANEOUS/
ASSOCIATION-RELATED
NEWS

Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations

The Proof is in the Reading. Richard N. Weltz. 30:12 April
(see Client Education; Project Management; Proofreading; Quality Assurance)

Translators, translation companies, and translation end-users often do not share a common understanding of the terms edit, review, and proofread. This brief article attempts to provide a basis for dispelling the confusion caused by use of these words in the translation process.

Quality—An Ethical Duty. Monique-Paule Tubb. 30:26 April
(see Client Education; Project Management; Proofreading; Quality Assurance)

Quality should be the number one concern of all translators, translation project managers, and company owners. The company may bear the final responsibility, but the translator plays a major role in the quality process and should feel that anything less than perfect is not good enough. The only way to provide a flawless product to clients is for all parties to feel that they are an essential part of the team.

How to Interview Corporations for In-House Positions. Mario Enrique Chávez. 30:23 Aug.
(see Independent Contracting; Professional Development/Public Relations)

Nowadays, working as an in-house translator, especially in the localization segment of the industry, is a highly doable goal that many of our freelancers are missing out on. The process of researching the corporations we might want to work for is further complicated by the geographic characteristics of our profession. Unlike doctors, lawyers, and auto mechanics, we cannot expect to find our ideal employers in the same city we live in. This article is part of an upcoming presentation at this year’s ATA Annual Conference in Los Angeles.

Good Contracts Make Good Partners. Chari Voss. 30:19 Sept.
(see Contracts; Independent Contracting; Interpreting)

Being prepared for the business of translating and interpreting means more than just knowing how to translate and interpret. Whether you work primarily with direct clients or with translation agencies and companies, knowing the basics about drafting and negotiating contracts is a must.

Everyone is in Sales…Whether They Know It or Not! Jeffrey Hoffmann. 30:22 Sept.
(see Independent Contracting)

Salespeople are not the only ones responsible for gaining and retaining clients. Ultimately, everyone in a translation company must take accountability for ensuring the next sale.

Maintaining Quality in the Flood of Translation Projects: A Model for Practical Quality Assurance. Gabrielle Vollmar (Translated from the German by student translators at the Translation and Interpretation Institute in Seattle, Washington). 30:24 Sept.
(see Project Management; Quality Assurance)

Faster and faster production cycles are putting increased pressure on translation companies to translate more text at a faster pace and lower cost. All too often this is at the expense of translation quality: a tight schedule does not allow time and money for a thorough quality check. However, the choice between maintaining quality and meeting a deadline does not have to be a dilemma. The model for practical quality assurance of translations that are subcontracted to other companies, as outlined in this article, offers a possible solution.

Translating for an International Corporation (In-House and Freelance). Ilona Helen Volmer. 30:28 Sept.
(see Independent Contracting; Project Management)

In our industry, professionals need to be more than just excellent translators. Whether they work for a company or as a freelancer, they also need to know about project management and business administration. What is the typical process of a translation project and how do our translators fit in?

10 Symptoms that Suggest Your Company May Not Be "In the Know." Andy Ras-Work. 30:13 Oct.

Companies are being hampered by the inability of their employees to quickly create, share, and access information. To accurately diagnose this affliction, companies must look inward and recognize the symptoms from which they suffer. This article will provide 10 symptoms that suggest a company is in need of a knowledge management solution.

Terminology Management Issues. Fabrizio Siracusa. 30:40 Oct.
(see Independent Contracting; Project Management)

Terminology management is considered by many as an extravagant expense and an unnecessary perk. However, the lack of terminology management is often to blame for inferior translations and, often, higher costs.

Art

Translation Problems with Color. Marvin Rubinstein. 30:40 March

The translation of words for different colors presents an interesting challenge to translators. This is an area which, at first glance, appears relatively simple, that is until you delve further into the problem.

Automotive

From Drum Brakes and Carburetors to Variable-Valve Intakes and Magnetic-Pulse Welding Technology. Rick Woyde. 30:40 June
(see Localization)

Due to globalization, technical complexity, and worldwide growth, there has never been a better time to focus on the automotive industry. Whether you prefer short or long documents, there is plenty of work to go around and not enough capable translators.

Client Education

Spreading the Gospel: Getting the Word Out About Who We Are and What We Do. Amanda Ennis. 30:30 March
(see Professional Development/Public Relations)

An introduction to the ATA Public Relations Committee and some ideas for things you can do to get the word out, including an interview with Lillian Clementi (chair, NCATA PR Committee) of the National Capital Area Chapter of ATA on a novel and highly successful PR effort.

Quality—An Ethical Duty. Monique-Paule Tubb. 30:26 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Project Management; Proofreading; Quality Assurance)

Quality should be the number one concern of all translators, translation project managers, and company owners. The company may bear the final responsibility, but the translator plays a major role in the quality process and should feel that anything less than perfect is not good enough. The only way to provide a flawless product to clients is for all parties to feel that they are an essential part of the team.

The Proof is in the Reading. Richard N. Weltz. 30:12 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Project Management; Proofreading; Quality Assurance)

Translators, translation companies, and translation end-users often do not share a common understanding of the terms edit, review, and proofread. This brief article attempts to provide a basis for dispelling the confusion caused by use of these words in the translation process.

"I’m the Interpreter, Not the Translator" or Tips for Health Care Interpreters on How to Educate Providers. Cynthia E. Roat. 30:26 Oct.
(see Interpreting; Medical)

Medical interpreters face an additional challenge in their job description: to educate the people for whom they interpret about what it means to work with an interpreter. But how do you do this when everyone’s in a hurry and you are the outsider?

Conference Reports (Worldwide)

Start Your Summer off Right at ATA’s NYC Financial Translation Conference. Trudy Balch. 30:13 March

Is a financial translator’s job ever done? Maybe, or maybe not, but a group of your intrepid colleagues is putting together a financial translation conference in New York City from May 18–20 that will help you do your job that much better. Register now and get ready for three invaluable days with some of the best financial translators in the business today!

Three Days of the Balance Sheet and Much More! Trudy Balch. 30:13 Aug.

What did more than 325 financial translators from more than 25 states and at least 15 countries talk about—in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Portuguese, and Russian—at the ATA’s Financial Translation Conference in New York this past May? A group of attendees reports back.

A Gringa in Buenos Aires. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 30:15 Oct.

A report on the Third Latin American Conference on Translation and Interpretation in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Brazilian Connections: Corpora, Cognition, and Culture. Robin Orr Bodkin. 30:16 Nov./Dec.

A report on The 2nd Brazilian International Translation Forum—Translating the New Millennium: Corpora, Cognition, and Culture.

Contracts

Good Contracts Make Good Partners. Chari Voss. 30:19 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Independent Contracting; Interpreting)

Being prepared for the business of translating and interpreting means more than just knowing how to translate and interpret. Whether you work primarily with direct clients or with translation agencies and companies, knowing the basics about drafting and negotiating contracts is a must.

Dictionaries

Getting More Out of Dictionaries. Mordecai Schreiber. 30:37 Jan.
(see Dictionary Reviews column)

Professional translators have always found dictionaries insufficient sources for answering all questions arising from translation from one language into another. Lexicography in the U.S., as well as worldwide, continues to be a problem area. Today, we face an additional question of whether dictionaries on disk and online will replace the traditional printed ones. Using examples such as the forthcoming Dictionary of Medicine (French/English) and the recent Multicultural Spanish Dictionary, the question of the limitations of dictionaries in general is discussed. The article will also examine the practical aspects of dictionaries designed specifically for translators.

The Dictionary: My Friend, My Enemy. Boris Silversteyn. 30:52 Jan.

Dictionaries always have been, and still are, indispensable tools of a translator (and interpreter). Online dictionaries have not eliminated the need for, and the use of, hard copy (paper) ones.

New Tools for the Times. Alexandre Mikheev. 30:63 Feb.
(see Russian; Software and Online Resources)

Engineering

The SI Briefly (Re)visited. Paulo Roberto Lopes. 30:42 Aug.
(see French; Portuguese)

A brief review of some important details of the International System of Units that plague translators’ lives.

Financial

Terminological Nuances in International Maritime Law: The Case of Translation of the Term demise charterer in the Document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages. Gemma Capellas-Espuny. 30:33 Feb.
(see French; Legal; Spanish)

International maritime law should undoubtedly be uniform worldwide because ships and merchants trade between nations and their disputes should thus be settled with consistency and coherence. The terminological nuances in Spanish and French of the term demise charterer in the document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages serve to illustrate the problems of translating legal texts in the framework of international organizations.

What, When, and Why in Key English-Spanish Financial Terminology. Alicia Agnese. 30:46 May
(see Spanish)

A context awareness analysis of key English financial terms, such as equity, management, performance, principal, and capital, whose translation into Spanish varies according to context. Examples will be used showing what other renditions are possible, when to use them, and why.

Approaching the Translation of Spanish Financial Statements. John J. Rynne. 30:33 June
(see Spanish)

Translating financial statements is a complex task. This article discusses the translation of financial statements issued by Spanish companies, focuses on essential background information and reference material, and identifies some pitfalls.

Economics for Portuguese Translators. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 30:51 Sept.
(see Portuguese)

What do ministers of finance talk about when they get together? Based on a Portuguese-language source text on Brazil, this article will explore some basic economic terminology, with emphasis on meaning and proper usage in English and Brazilian Portuguese. The main topics covered will be exchange rate regimes, inflation, GDP growth, the balance of trade, interest rates, privatization, integration, the Real Plan, and fiscal discipline.

Incorporation

New California State Reporting Requirements Negatively Impact Translation Industry. Richard S. Paegelow. 30:15 March
(see Independent Contracting)

A new California law places an enormous burden on California translation companies who use unincorporated independent contractors. This article discusses the law’s requirements and the negative impact it has for our industry.

Considering Incorporating? Consider This. Wendy Griswold. 30:11 April
(see Independent Contracting)

What to think about if you’re considering incorporating your business: Is incorporation right for you? Can you achieve the same purpose without all the fuss and bother? What are the pros and cons?

Independent Contracting

New California State Reporting Requirements Negatively Impact Translation Industry. Richard S. Paegelow. 30:15 March

A new California law places an enormous burden on California translation companies who use unincorporated independent contractors. This article discusses the law’s requirements and the negative impact it has for our industry.

Considering Incorporating? Consider This. Wendy Griswold. 30:11 April

What to think about if you’re considering incorporating your business: Is incorporation right for you? Can you achieve the same purpose without all the fuss and bother? What are the pros and cons?

How to Remain Competitive as a Freelance Translator. David W. Moyer. 30:17 July
(see Localization; Professional Development/Public Relations; Project Management)

As more and more freelance translators join the localization industry, many are wondering how they can distinguish themselves from their colleagues. What are project managers looking for when selecting a translator?

How to Interview Corporations for In-House Positions. Mario Enrique Chávez. 30:23 Aug.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Professional Development/Public Relations)

Nowadays, working as an in-house translator, especially in the localization segment of the industry, is a highly doable goal that many of our freelancers are missing out on. The process of researching the corporations we might want to work for is further complicated by the geographic characteristics of our profession. Unlike doctors, lawyers, and auto mechanics, we cannot expect to find our ideal employers in the same city we live in. This article is part of an upcoming presentation at this year’s ATA Annual Conference in Los Angeles. 

Good Contracts Make Good Partners. Chari Voss. 30:19 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Contracts; Interpreting)

Being prepared for the business of translating and interpreting means more than just knowing how to translate and interpret. Whether you work primarily with direct clients or with translation agencies and companies, knowing the basics about drafting and negotiating contracts is a must.

Sites of Interest for Translators: How to Find Information on Potential Clients. Frieda Ruppaner-Lind. 30:21 Sept.
(see Software and Online Resources)

What do you know about your potential client? This article gives a brief overview of valuable Internet resources for freelance translators, featuring several lists and archives that can be helpful in gathering information before accepting assignments.

Everyone is in Sales…Whether They Know It or Not! Jeffrey Hoffmann. 30:22 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations)

Salespeople are not the only ones responsible for gaining and retaining clients. Ultimately, everyone in a translation company must take accountability for ensuring the next sale.

Maintaining Quality in the Flood of Translation Projects: A Model for Practical Quality Assurance. Gabrielle Vollmar (Translated from the German by student translators at the Translation and Interpretation Institute in Seattle, Washington). 30:24 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Quality Assurance)

Faster and faster production cycles are putting increased pressure on translation companies to translate more text at a faster pace and lower cost. All too often this is at the expense of translation quality: a tight schedule does not allow time and money for a thorough quality check. However, the choice between maintaining quality and meeting a deadline does not have to be a dilemma. The model for practical quality assurance of translations that are subcontracted to other companies, as outlined in this article, offers a possible solution.

Translating for an International Corporation (in-house and freelance). Ilona Helen Volmer. 30:28 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Project Management)

In our industry, professionals need to be more than just excellent translators. Whether they work for a company or as a freelancer, they also need to know about project management and business administration. What is the typical process of a translation project and how do our translators fit in?

In Search of. Andy Ras-Work. 30:17 Oct.
(see Software and Online Resources)

Knowledge workers spend extensive amounts of time searching for information both on the company intranet and on the Internet. Having a solid understanding of search techniques and the different types of search tools can help knowledge workers dramatically increase their productivity. This article highlights the various ways a search can be conducted and how workers can ensure that their searches produce the most accurate results and deliver only relevant information.

Terminology Management Issues. Fabrizio Siracusa. 30:40 Oct.
(Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Project Management)

Terminology management is considered by many as an extravagant expense and an unnecessary perk. However, the lack of terminology management is often to blame for inferior translations and, often, higher costs.

Interpreting

The Role of Interpreters in Addressing Hate/Bias Incidents. P. Diane Schneider. 30:22 Jan.
(see Legal)

Hate/bias incidents, when they occur, impact a larger segment of the community than the specific victim(s) targeted. It is crucial that interpreters know how to recognize and respond to such incidents, and how to respond to the unique challenges of interpreting when this subject is involved.

Translating Texts, Interpreting Cultures. Lynn Visson. 30:28 Jan.
(see Localization; Russian)

Throughout history, the role of the simultaneous interpreter has been to translate both words and cultures. Cultural differences between Russian and English, for example, are evident in conference situations, diplomatic negotiations, and in the cross-cultural microcosms of Russian-American marriages, where communication requires a daily crossing of linguistic and cultural boundaries. The interpreter who is equally sensitive to both language and culture will succeed in rendering the speaker’s true intent and meaning.

New Concepts for Telephone Interpreting. Irena Stone. 30:58 Jan.

Rapid development of information technology has expanded the world market for telephone interpreting to meet the growing needs of various industries requiring instantaneous communication. Telephone interpreting is a complex and dynamic process where common meanings harmoniously integrate social and cultural contexts, challenging an interpreter with its lack of nonverbal information. Telephone interpreting requires many refined skills for the most effective communication. The following article discusses the elements of consecutive interpreting aimed at finding the right language which will allow ideas to be exchanged accurately and with ease in the constantly evolving and merging multilingual world. 

Interpreter Training in the United States. Harry Obst. 30:17 Feb.
(see Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

Most of the interpreters working in the U.S. today never had any meaningful training. The fault lies mostly with American colleges and universities for refusing to fund reliable interpreter training programs and with the American business community for not demanding such training. The article reviews available programs, successful curricula, and the qualifications needed to provide reliable consecutive interpretation.

The Massachusetts Medical Interpreters Association’s Efforts to Achieve Medical Interpreter Certification. Maria-Paz Beltran Avery and Eduardo Berinstein. 30:25 Feb.
(see Medical; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

Massachusetts has been a national leader in the move toward the development and institutionalization of quality medical interpreter services provided by trained interpreters. This article will attempt to inform readers of efforts underway in Massachusetts, by the Certification Committee of the Massachusetts Medical Interpreters Association, to develop a medical interpreter certification tool.

Interpreter Training Opportunities in Texas. Mary Esther Diaz. 30:29 Feb.
(see Medical; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

Medical and community interpreting is an emerging discipline. The growing need for medical and community interpreters has been previously discussed in the Chronicle. But how can interpreters prepare themselves to meet the qualifications required for this work? Here’s what is being done in Texas to prepare interpreters for these opportunities.

Emerging Realities of Community Interpretation in Rural Settings: Focusing on Early Intervention Services. Katharine Allen. 30:14 May

Latino immigration is spreading throughout the U.S. to new and often rural communities where it has not been seen before. The need for quality community interpretation for new immigrants is growing. This article examines the experience of one such rural community, the impact of immigration on its early intervention services system, and the important role community interpreters have come to play in the process.

Dialectal Dialectics and Diatribes. Alexander Rainof. 30:51 May
(see Spanish)

The Spanish language has 20 major dialects, ranging from the Spanish spoken in Argentina to the one spoken in Venezuela. These dialects often use different words for the same object, or the same word for different concepts or things. This study covers two areas of particular importance to the translator/interpreter in general, and to the forensic translator and interpreter in particular: articles of clothing and adornment and insults—areas where the variations are most numerous.

Court Interpreting in Close Quarters: Lock-Ups, Jails, and Institutions. Arlene M. Kelly. 30:11 June
(see Legal)

Court interpreting occurs beyond the walls of the courtroom. Other environments, both inside and outside the courthouse, require strategic preparation and test the professional skills of the legal interpreter.

Interpreting for a Non-English-Speaking Juror: A New Challenge in New Mexico. Margarita B. Montalvo. 30:20 June
(see Legal; Spanish)

Today, only judicial interpreters in New Mexico have to be concerned about being the 13th person in the jury room. Tomorrow, a new ruling in New Mexico could set a trend for other states. In this article, the author recounts her experience interpreting during jury deliberation, and offers suggestions for professional implementation and modifications of some procedures.

Plea Bargain? You Bet Your Life. Sandra A. Morra. 30:24 June
(see Legal)

This overview of the plea bargain process is based on a series of interviews with Rhode Island judges, lawyers, prosecutors, and interpreters. In Rhode Island, the plea bargain accounts for 90 percent of criminal case dispositions. The seriousness and frequency of this process are both compelling reasons for a brief, but in-depth look.

Consular Interpreting: Community Interpreting. Adrián Fuentes Luque. 30:29 June
(see Legal; Spanish)

Fortunately, over the last few decades interpreting has achieved well-deserved levels of international recognition and increasingly become a subject of study in academic and professional circles. However, many people are still only familiar with the three most common forms of interpreting, namely consecutive, simultaneous, and bilateral. But what is consular interpreting? When, where, and how is it carried out? This area is highly demanding and deals with very delicate matters requiring a great deal of specialized training and professionalism.

Good Contracts Make Good Partners. Chari Voss. 30:19 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Contracts; Independent Contracting)

Being prepared for the business of translating and interpreting means more than just knowing how to translate and interpret. Whether you work primarily with direct clients or with translation agencies and companies, knowing the basics about drafting and negotiating contracts is a must. 

The First Workshop on the Teaching of Interpreter Training Held in Taiwan, Republic of China—A Pilot Study. Sheng-Jie Chen and Fritz G. Hensey. 30:36 Sept.
(see Chinese; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

This study addresses the shortage of interpreter-trainers in Taiwan and proposes a solution—a teacher-training workshop. Such a workshop was held for the first time in Taiwan, December 15-17, 2000. This article investigates the process of implementation of the workshop and analyzes the feedback of participants. It is hoped that the concepts derived from this study may enhance teacher-training in similar workshops.

Special Challenges in Interpreting from Japanese into English. Izumi Suzuki. 30:46 Sept.
(see Japanese)

Interpreter/translator Izumi Suzuki walks us through the hazy maze of Japanese ambiguity, hard on the path towards clear communication. Her examples and easy style beguile us into thinking that the challenges are fun as well as funny. They aren’t.

The National Center for State Courts and the Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification Program. Madelynn Herman and William Hewitt. 30:20 Oct.
(see Legal; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

This article briefly outlines the mission and goals of the National Center for State Courts. It then describes the Consortium for State Court Interpreters Certification Program, starting with initial research and reform efforts on court interpreting, how and why the Consortium was founded, as well as requirements and advantages to Consortium membership. Consortium activities, accomplishments, and future directions are also discussed.

"I’m the Interpreter, Not the Translator" or Tips for Health Care Interpreters on How to Educate Providers. Cynthia E. Roat. 30:26 Oct.
(see Client Education; Medical)

Medical interpreters face an additional challenge in their job description: to educate the people for whom they interpret about what it means to work with an interpreter. But how do you do this when everyone’s in a hurry and you are the outsider?

If You Cannot See It, How Can You Tell? The Meaning and Significance of Voice in Telephone Interpreting. Irena Nikolayeva-Stone. 30:28 Oct.

Telephone interpreting, which relies on the auditory input of participants, demands voice clarity and the interpreter’s ability to use appropriate tone and intonation consistently. The concept of proper voice usage has become an essential component of the overall quality of telephone interpreting.

Interpreter Training Using Cooperative Learning Approaches and Improvised Simultaneous Interpreting Equipment. Sheng-Jie Chen. 30:30 Oct.
(see Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

A study of the implementation of a simultaneous interpretation course using improvised SI equipment and cooperative learning approaches.

Language-Specific Articles

(Arabic)

The Language and Translation of Arab Folktales. Srpko Lestaric. 30:45 Feb.
(see Literary)

When translating genuine folktales for the general public, a translator must think of the tales he/she listened to in his/her childhood, but must not succumb to challenges of cultural assimilation. The dialectal wording of the source should, all by itself, project into a literary hybrid, colored by a somewhat archaic lexis and a "fraudulent" use of other typical instruments of popular narration. When being read, they should be plucking at the epic strings inside us, provoking in our inner being authentic and secret chords of the language of a living tale.

(Chinese)

Translating Nobel Prize Winner Gao Xingjian’s Soul Mountain. Lily Liu. 30:18 July
(see Literary)

An interview with Dr. Mabel Lee, who translated 2000 Nobel Prize winner Gao Xingjian’s novel Soul Mountain into English.

The First Workshop on the Teaching of Interpreter Training Held in Taiwan, Republic of China—A Pilot Study. Sheng-Jie Chen and Fritz G. Hensey. 30:36 Sept.
(see Interpreting; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

This study addresses the shortage of interpreter-trainers in Taiwan and proposes a solution—a teacher-training workshop. Such a workshop was held for the first time in Taiwan, December 15-17, 2000. This article investigates the process of implementation of the workshop and analyzes the feedback of participants. It is hoped that the concepts derived from this study may enhance teacher-training in similar workshops.

(French)

Terminological Nuances in International Maritime Law: The Case of Translation of the Term demise charterer in the Document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages. Gemma Capellas-Espuny. 30:33 Feb.
(see Financial; Legal; Spanish)

International maritime law should undoubtedly be uniform worldwide because ships and merchants trade between nations and their disputes should thus be settled with consistency and coherence. The terminological nuances in Spanish and French of the term demise charterer in the document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages serve to illustrate the problems of translating legal texts in the framework of international organizations.

Web Authoring Tools and the Challenge of French-Language Web Design. Marco Maertens. 30:16 April
(see Software and Online Resources)

While it is getting progressively easier to design and display French-language Web pages, enough pitfalls remain for the unsuspecting Web designer that necessitate special attention. This article examines the problems encountered with different Web page design software packages when inserting accented characters, as well as some common problems with particular characters, such as the euro symbol and the "œ" ligature. Finally, the article discusses some stylistic concerns that are unique to French-language Web pages.

Bilingual and Multilingual Websites as a Translation Resource. Joan Wallace. 30:24 April
(see Software and Online Resources)

The proliferation of sites on the Internet has brought translators a treasure trove of new resources. Among them is the number of sites that are now available in multiple languages. As with everything found on the Internet, such sites are a potential gold mine, provided they are used with discretion and a critical eye.

From English to Haitian through French Vocabulary: A Translation Challenge. Roger E. Savain. 30:49 June
(see Haitian; Literary)

Translating from English to Haitian is a challenge. Whether in the fields of education, health, medicine, or law (the main sources where the English texts to be translated into Haitian originate), there are at least three hurdles to clear: 1) the initial jargon; 2) the target reader; and 3) the effective language.

In Francophone Regalia: A Review of Co-incidences: poètes anglophones du Québec. Albert Waldinger. 30:43 July
(see Literary)

In a poetic tribute to his city of Montreal, Canada, A.M. Klein wrote that its "English vocable and roll Ecossic,/Mollified by the parle of French,/Bilinguefact your air" (my emphasis, 1997:90). In other words, in this region it is as natural as "liquefaction" to move between two languages, making Pierre DesRuisseaux’s anthology, Co-incidences: poètes anglophones du Québec, as organic as a well-formed crystal.

The SI Briefly (Re)visited. Paulo Roberto Lopes. 30:42 Aug.
(see Portuguese)

A brief review of some important details of the International System of Units that plague translators’ lives.

Assessing the Spanish Translations of Marcel Proust’s First Volume. Herbert E. Craig. 30:40 Nov./Dec.
(see Spanish; Literary)

The first, and often acclaimed, Spanish translation of Proust’s initial volume, Por el camino de Swann (1920), has been challenged by four recent versions. Using the principles of translation assessment of Katharina Reiss (Translation Criticism—The Potentials and Limitations, 2000), the author of this article compares the strengths and weaknesses of this first translation by the Spanish poet Pedro Salinas with those by Julio Gómez de la Serna (1981), Carlos Manzano (1999), Mauro Armiño (2000), and Estela Canto (2000).

With(in) Translation: An Epistemology of the écriture of Hélène Cixous. Michael C. Walker. 30:45 Nov./Dec.
(see Literary)

Hélène Cixous defies categorization as both a writer and an individual. Her application of the conventions of French turns the language upon its head, personifying the nonpersonal, making material the nontangible, and playing on metaphors hidden within other metaphors.

(German)

Getting Aggressive with the Passive in German SOPs. Maia Costa. 30:27 March

Do you have a love-hate relationship with passive constructions in German technical documents? Then this article may provide you with some new coping strategies. Focusing on the category of Arbeitsanweisungen or Standard Operating Procedures, the author of this article shares the solutions implemented by one team of translators.

The Consequences of Revival or a Work in Progress. Leslie Willson. 30:31 May
(see Literary)

Personal reflections on how a translator becomes engaged in meeting the demands of translating a new biography of a giant in German literature, Thomas Mann, whose biographer, Hermann Kurzke, is the equal of the Nobel Prize recipient with a stylistic tour de force that doubly challenges the translator.

Frequently and Less Frequently Asked Questions on German Legal Translation. Margaret Marks. 30:14 June
(see Legal; Software and Online Resources)

This article looks back on seven years of reading translators’ questions about German<>English legal translation on FLEFO (CompuServe’s Foreign Language Education Forum), mailing lists, BBSs, and newsgroups. It offers many questions and a few answers.

Houseplants in German and English. Eric A. Bye. 30:42 Oct.

Translating plant names is relatively easy when the botanical (Latin) name is given. But even without the Latin, a few simple search techniques can help locate an appropriate target-language equivalent.

(Haitian)

From English to Haitian through French Vocabulary: A Translation Challenge. Roger E. Savain. 30:49 June
(see French; Literary)

Translating from English to Haitian is a challenge. Whether in the fields of education, health, medicine, or law (the main sources where the English texts to be translated into Haitian originate), there are at least three hurdles to clear: 1) the initial jargon; 2) the target reader; and 3) the effective language.

(Hungarian)

Writing Instruction in the Education of Hungarian Translators. Tibor Koltay. 30:20 Feb.
(see Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

Professional Documentation is a course designed to make Hungarian students of English translation familiar with written genres that go beyond the rubric of translation. The most stable, and in many regards most important, part of the course is writing abstracts. For abstracting, different sets of rules can be compiled and used in the course.

The Greatest Experience in My Life. Krisztina Viragh (Trans. Louis Korda). 30:48 March
(see Literary)

As a non-Indo-European language, Hungarian stands more or less lonesome and exotic in the European language landscape; even more so because its strangely charming structure hardly tempts anyone to study it. Regardless of this, he who might, nonetheless, summon up the courage to do so will be rewarded by a widening of not only his linguistic horizon, but also of his linguistic awareness.

(Italian)

Common Words in Technical Language: Hot. Roberto Crivello (Translated by Jonathan Hine). 30:22 Nov./Dec.

The technical translator must know the basics in those fields that might likely intersect with the one in which he or she is specializing. This way, the translator can gradually develop the mental connections needed among meanings, expressions, and terms to evaluate the suitability of any analogies uncovered. This article steps, if only partially, through a mental process for resolving problems in technical translation, discussing technical terminology and linguistic issues.

Is Sports Translation Technical? An Italian Translator’s Perspective. Floriana Bivona-Lockner (Edited by Michèle Hansen). 30:24 Nov./Dec.

Is sports translation worthwhile? For those who have the tools of the trade at their disposals, the answer is yes, for two reasons: 1) it’s a growing field, and 2) it flexes your mental muscles. Your brain needs exercising, and sports translation is one way to keep up the cross-training.

Challenges in Localization. Alessandra Muzzi (English text edited by Anne Milano Appel). 30:28 Nov./Dec.
(see Localization)

The software and Website localization market, in spite of the recent economic slow-down, is still active and able to offer interesting opportunities to those translators possessing, or willing to acquire and develop, the required technical knowledge. This article will attempt to explain what is meant by localization and to give an idea of what challenges it presents to localizers, particularly Italian localizers.

Influences of English in Technical Translation into Italian. Roberto Crivello. 30:32 Nov./Dec.

This article shows how, through overuse, semantic and syntactic loan translations and loanwords become fixed, "ready-to-use" forms. This leads to an impoverishment of terminological and stylistic choices that tend to standardize and, in the end, erode the quality of the translation. This problem, regardless of the country in which the translator lives, can be remedied only through the careful use of language. I will illustrate more accurate or less banal solutions to the problems discussed.

(Japanese)

Special Challenges in Interpreting from Japanese into English. Izumi Suzuki. 30:46 Sept.
(see Interpreting)

Interpreter/translator Izumi Suzuki walks us through the hazy maze of Japanese ambiguity, hard on the path towards clear communication. Her examples and easy style beguile us into thinking that the challenges are fun as well as funny. They aren’t.

(Osage)

Researching the Osage Language. Carolyn Quintero. 30:35 March

"Linguist" is a term most accurately applied to someone who knows about how languages work. How does a linguist set about describing an unknown language? The author discusses the route that led her, after many years in South America, to research the Osage language in Oklahoma. In this informal sketch, she discusses how she became interested in the language, acquired and sorted the data, what such a large project feels like, and something of the spirit of the language and the people.

(Polish)

English Loans in Polish—Linguistic Change in the Making. Ursula Klingenberg. 30:34 July

This article presents a balanced picture of loan words that have infiltrated the Polish language on many levels during the last decade. It provides a historical perspective on foreign linguistic influence in Poland and offers some thoughts on the sociological conditions of the process. Many examples of Polish words will be cited, but even those readers uninitiated to the intricacies of this language should have no difficulty understanding them.

(Portuguese)

Inês é morta. Carlos Ramires. 30:34 March
(see Literary)

The fate of colloquial expressions varies considerably. Some have a short life—summer slang in Rio de Janeiro, for instance, will not survive temperatures below 80° Fahrenheit. Others, however, can last for centuries, preserve their original meaning, and still sound fresh.

Overview of the U.S. and Brazilian Legal Systems: Concepts and Terminology. Enéas Theodoro, Jr. 30:34 Aug.
(see Legal)

The wide rift separating the American and Brazilian legal systems is deeply rooted in their respective historical origins.

Mixing Science and Art: Is It Possible to develop a Single FACIT Translation for Both Portugal and Brazil? Benjamin J. Arnold. 30:38 Aug.
(see Medical)

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) Multilingual Translations Project works to adapt the FACIT health-related quality of life questionnaires into other languages for use in research and clinical trials worldwide. This project has developed an innovative iterative translation methodology (forward, backward, and multiple review) to ensure equivalence among the various language versions of the FACIT questionnaires. This article presents an overview of our general translation process and, more specifically, the methods used to obtain a Portuguese version of these quality of life questionnaires. The final goal is to create a translation that is cross-culturally suitable for Portuguese-speaking populations in both Europe and South America.

The SI Briefly (Re)visited. Paulo Roberto Lopes. 30:42 Aug.
(see French)

A brief review of some important details of the International System of Units that plague translators’ lives.

Batting a Thousand! Translating American Sports Terms Used Idiomatically (An English-to-Portuguese Example). John B. Jensen. 30:48 Aug.

Sports contribute many words and expressions to the general vocabulary that may appear when translating and interpreting. Here is a study of some of these terms in English, with literal sports meanings, figurative meanings, and suggested Portuguese translations.

Economics for Portuguese Translators. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 30:51 Sept.
(see Financial)

What do ministers of finance talk about when they get together? Based on a Portuguese-language source text on Brazil, this article will explore some basic economic terminology, with emphasis on meaning and proper usage in English and Brazilian Portuguese. The main topics covered will be exchange rate regimes, inflation, GDP growth, the balance of trade, interest rates, privatization, integration, the Real Plan, and fiscal discipline.

(Russian)

Translating Texts, Interpreting Cultures. Lynn Visson. 30:28 Jan.
(see Interpreting; Localization)

Throughout history, the role of the simultaneous interpreter has been to translate both words and cultures. Cultural differences between Russian and English, for example, are evident in conference situations, diplomatic negotiations, and in the cross-cultural microcosms of Russian-American marriages, where communication requires a daily crossing of linguistic and cultural boundaries. The interpreter who is equally sensitive to both language and culture will succeed in rendering the speaker’s true intent and meaning.

The Role of Translation in Forming a National Literary Language: The Case of Russian. Harald Hille. 30:35 Feb.
(see Literary)

A national literary language emerged in Russia only in the late 18th century. Translation and translators played a significant role in working out the form it took.

New Tools for the Times. Alexandre Mikheev. 30:63 Feb.
(see Dictionaries; Software and Online Resources)

Finding the Proper Tools for Translators Working in English and Russian. Alex Lane. 30:27 July

In recent years, the challenges facing translators working in English and Russian have escalated. This article examines two salient areas where such challenges have occurred: the tools used to write translations and those used to find information needed to produce good translations.

Spelling Geography—Next Step. Vadim Khazin. 30:31 July
(see Ukrainian)

Is the spelling of geographic names really a problem?

(Spanish)

Trans-Libations: Spanish-English Wine Terminology from the Vineyard to the Glass. Kirk Anderson. 30:41 Jan.

Taken together, Spanish-speaking countries may produce and consume more wine than any other linguistic block on earth, but that’s not to say that translating wine literature is big business. This "for the love of the art" article will take readers through the process of making and appreciating wine in both Spanish and English and, while attempting to break down the barriers between wine snobs and the rest of us, will offer a model for acquiring practical terminological knowledge in any field of expertise.

El Timing De Los Benchmarks. S. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 30:67 Jan.

The grating on the eardrums—and how to fix it. 

Terminological Nuances in International Maritime Law: The Case of Translation of the Term demise charterer in the Document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages. Gemma Capellas-Espuny. 30:33 Feb.
(see Financial; French; Legal)

International maritime law should undoubtedly be uniform worldwide because ships and merchants trade between nations and their disputes should thus be settled with consistency and coherence. The terminological nuances in Spanish and French of the term demise charterer in the document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages serve to illustrate the problems of translating legal texts in the framework of international organizations.

Trajections: An Applied Linguistics Method for the Spanish Translation of a Medical Nomenclature. María Carolina Berra de Iubatti and Rosana P. Strobietto. 30:34 April
(see Medical)

This article describes the translation techniques and the applied linguistics method of trajections used for the Spanish translation of a medical nomenclature. Its purpose is to depict the manifold aspects of translating and the various difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and faithfully transcoded medical nomenclature, which in turn secures terminological consistency. A background on the "Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine," a medical terminology coding system, will be presented and the differences between interface and reference terminologies explained. Translation procedures and techniques will be exemplified through terms solely extracted from the source terminology, with special focus on Malone’s linguistically based method of trajections as contrasted with the operative mode.

Convivencia ciudadana: "Peaceful Coexistence" Evolves From the Battlefield to the Bargaining Table. S. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 30:38 April

Can’t we all just get along?

Weaving In and Out of Spanish: A Look at Two Contemporary Bilingual Poetry Collections. Liliana Valenzuela. 30:37 May
(see Literary)

In this article, I compare two en face translations going into and out of Spanish, the methods and styles used, and share what I learned from talking to the translators and one of the publishers about the state of bilingual poetry publications these days.

Language, Media, and National Identity. Raúl Ávila (Translated by Alicia Marshall, revision by Linda Keller). 30:42 May

In seeking to integrate their ethnic minorities, national states foster the elimination of linguistic differences within their territories. Mass media shares the same interests, as it broadcasts in one language within its territory and beyond, to extend its influence throughout international linguistic communities. The Spanish-speaking community seeks its own cohesion in order to be able to face the challenge that English presents as the lingua franca in the international arena.  

What, When, and Why in Key English-Spanish Financial Terminology. Alicia Agnese. 30:46 May
(see Financial)

A context awareness analysis of key English financial terms, such as equity, management, performance, principal, and capital, whose translation into Spanish varies according to context. Examples will be used showing what other renditions are possible, when to use them, and why.

The Translator: Between Reality and Solitude. Leandro Wolfson (Translated by Queli Pariente Ahmed). Kenny Fitzgerald and Alicia Marshall. 30:49 May
(see Literary)

It is generally assumed that the translator should be "invisible." This precept places him or her in a paradoxical condition as to his own personal language. Between the objective reality of the foreign text and the lone subjectivity of the "invisible" translator, there is the transitional space of creativity.

Dialectal Dialectics and Diatribes. Alexander Rainof. 30:51 May
(see Interpreting)

The Spanish language has 20 major dialects, ranging from the Spanish spoken in Argentina to the one spoken in Venezuela. These dialects often use different words for the same object, or the same word for different concepts or things. This study covers two areas of particular importance to the translator/interpreter in general, and to the forensic translator and interpreter in particular: articles of clothing and adornment and insults—areas where the variations are most numerous.

Interpreting for a Non-English-Speaking Juror: A New Challenge in New Mexico. Margarita B. Montalvo. 30:20 June
(see Interpreting; Legal)

Today, only judicial interpreters in New Mexico have to be concerned about being the 13th person in the jury room. Tomorrow, a new ruling in New Mexico could set a trend for other states. In this article, the author recounts her experience interpreting during jury deliberation, and offers suggestions for professional implementation and modifications of some procedures.

Consular Interpreting: Community Interpreting. Adrián Fuentes Luque. 30:29 June
(see Interpreting; Legal)

Fortunately, over the last few decades interpreting has achieved well-deserved levels of international recognition and increasingly become a subject of study in academic and professional circles. However, many people are still only familiar with the three most common forms of interpreting, namely consecutive, simultaneous, and bilateral. But what is consular interpreting? When, where, and how is it carried out? This area is highly demanding and deals with very delicate matters requiring a great deal of specialized training and professionalism. 

Approaching the Translation of Spanish Financial Statements. John J. Rynne. 30:33 June
(see Financial)

Translating financial statements is a complex task. This article discusses the translation of financial statements issued by Spanish companies, focuses on essential background information and reference material, and identifies some pitfalls.

More on Translating Abbreviations in Specialized Texts into English. Daniel Linder. 30:37 June

When into-English specialized translators encounter an abbreviation in a foreign language source-text they must first determine what language each abbreviation is in before deciding what action is appropriate: transfer (non-translation) or translation. Specialized into-English translators should be aware that non-translation of source-language abbreviations may lead to a breakdown in communication. Examples of abbreviations from specialized texts in business will be used to illustrate this problem.

Language and Identity in Literary Translation: The Spanish Translation of How the García Girls Lost Their Accent by Julia Álvarez. Alicia B. Cipria. 30:43 June
(see Literary)

The increasing amount of literature by Hispanic writers in the U.S. poses new challenges for translators when translating into Spanish. The centrality of linguistic identity in Julia Álvarez’s How the García Girls Lost Their Accent underscores the importance of appropriate dialectal representations when translating such literary works.

An Editor’s Inside View of Publishing Spanish Textbooks. Isabel Picado. 30:28 Aug.
(see Literary)

An overview of the difficulties encountered editing Spanish college and school textbooks: challenges brought about by the process of creating a text, the dearth of available resources, and the cultural and political issues confronted. Editors’ roles, struggles, and rewards are presented.

Assessing the Spanish Translations of Marcel Proust’s First Volume. Herbert E. Craig. 30:40 Nov./Dec.
(see French; Literary)

The first, and often acclaimed, Spanish translation of Proust’s initial volume, Por el camino de Swann (1920), has been challenged by four recent versions. Using the principles of translation assessment of Katharina Reiss (Translation Criticism—The Potentials and Limitations, 2000), the author of this article compares the strengths and weaknesses of this first translation by the Spanish poet Pedro Salinas with those by Julio Gómez de la Serna (1981), Carlos Manzano (1999), Mauro Armiño (2000), and Estela Canto (2000).

(Ukrainian)

Spelling Geography—Next Step. Vadim Khazin. 30:31 July
(see Russian)

Is the spelling of geographic names really a problem?

Legal

The Role of Interpreters in Addressing Hate/Bias Incidents. P. Diane Schneider. 30:22 Jan.
(see Interpreting)

Hate/bias incidents, when they occur, impact a larger segment of the community than the specific victim(s) targeted. It is crucial that interpreters know how to recognize and respond to such incidents, and how to respond to the unique challenges of interpreting when this subject is involved.

Terminological Nuances in International Maritime Law: The Case of Translation of the Term demise charterer in the Document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages. Gemma Capellas-Espuny. 30:33 Feb.
(see Financial; French; Spanish)

International maritime law should undoubtedly be uniform worldwide because ships and merchants trade between nations and their disputes should thus be settled with consistency and coherence. The terminological nuances in Spanish and French of the term demise charterer in the document Final Act and International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages serve to illustrate the problems of translating legal texts in the framework of international organizations.

Court Interpreting in Close Quarters: Lock-Ups, Jails, and Institutions. Arlene M. Kelly. 30:11 June
(see Interpreting)

Court interpreting occurs beyond the walls of the courtroom. Other environments, both inside and outside the courthouse, require strategic preparation and test the professional skills of the legal interpreter.

Frequently and Less Frequently Asked Questions on German Legal Translation. Margaret Marks. 30:14 June
(see German; Software and Online Resources)

This article looks back on seven years of reading translators’ questions about German<>English legal translation on FLEFO (CompuServe’s Foreign Language Education Forum), mailing lists, BBSs, and newsgroups. It offers many questions and a few answers.

Interpreting for a Non-English-Speaking Juror: A New Challenge in New Mexico. Margarita B. Montalvo. 30:20 June
(see Interpreting; Spanish)

Today, only judicial interpreters in New Mexico have to be concerned about being the 13th person in the jury room. Tomorrow, a new ruling in New Mexico could set a trend for other states. In this article, the author recounts her experience interpreting during jury deliberation, and offers suggestions for professional implementation and modifications of some procedures. 

Plea Bargain? You Bet Your Life. Sandra A. Morra. 30:24 June
(see Interpreting)

This overview of the plea bargain process is based on a series of interviews with Rhode Island judges, lawyers, prosecutors, and interpreters. In Rhode Island, the plea bargain accounts for 90 percent of criminal case dispositions. The seriousness and frequency of this process are both compelling reasons for a brief, but in-depth look.

Consular Interpreting: Community Interpreting. Adrián Fuentes Luque. 30:29 June
(see Interpreting; Spanish)

Fortunately, over the last few decades interpreting has achieved well-deserved levels of international recognition and increasingly become a subject of study in academic and professional circles. However, many people are still only familiar with the three most common forms of interpreting, namely consecutive, simultaneous, and bilateral. But what is consular interpreting? When, where, and how is it carried out? This area is highly demanding and deals with very delicate matters requiring a great deal of specialized training and professionalism.

Overview of the U.S. and Brazilian Legal Systems: Concepts and Terminology. Enéas Theodoro, Jr. 30:34 Aug.
(see Portuguese)

The wide rift separating the American and Brazilian legal systems is deeply rooted in their respective historical origins.

The National Center for State Courts and the Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification Program. Madelynn Herman and William Hewitt. 30:20 Oct.
(see Interpreting; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

This article briefly outlines the mission and goals of the National Center for State Courts. It then describes the Consortium for State Court Interpreters Certification Program, starting with initial research and reform efforts on court interpreting, how and why the Consortium was founded, as well as requirements and advantages to Consortium membership. Consortium activities, accomplishments, and future directions are also discussed.

Literary

Translating Nonfiction Books: Opportunities and Pitfalls. Eileen Brockbank. 30:51 Jan.

There’s lots of work translating nonfiction books for the translator with solid expertise in both a subject area and graphic design programs. If you are considering developing this line of translation work, you will also need considerable business savvy.

Eliot Weinberger on Translation, That "Problematic Necessity." S. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 30:31 Feb.

Eliot Weinberger, translator, essayist, and editor, has been recognized as a major contributor to the dissemination of Latin American literature, but that hasn't prevented him from experiencing the anonymity familiar to all translators. In a lecture at the Inter-American Development Bank, he explored the frustrations as well as the joys of our profession.

The Role of Translation in Forming a National Literary Language: The Case of Russian. Harald Hille. 30:35 Feb.
(see Russian)

A national literary language emerged in Russia only in the late 18th century. Translation and translators played a significant role in working out the form it took.

Gender Issues in Translation Studies. Vanessa Leonardi. 30:40 Feb.
(see Women’s Studies)

A brief review of literature written on the issue of feminist translation studies. The article will analyze gender differences in translation by looking at the way women have been using language in translation as a strategy to spread or communicate their feminist ideals. Broadly speaking, translation here means the act of reproducing a text whose meaning is transferred from one language to another. But what kind of relationship exists between gender issues and translation studies? How is the equivalence of a text maintained in feminist translation, and to what extent? In order to answer these questions, it is important to analyze the phenomenon of feminism in relation to language within the field of translation studies. Particular attention will be given to the analysis of technical difficulties involved in translating women’s language, as well as to a number of criticisms addressed to these translators.

The Language and Translation of Arab Folktales. Srpko Lestaric. 30:45 Feb.
(see Arabic)

When translating genuine folktales for the general public, a translator must think of the tales he/she listened to in his/her childhood, but must not succumb to challenges of cultural assimilation. The dialectal wording of the source should, all by itself, project into a literary hybrid, colored by a somewhat archaic lexis and a "fraudulent" use of other typical instruments of popular narration. When being read, they should be plucking at the epic strings inside us, provoking in our inner being authentic and secret chords of the language of a living tale.

Orthography and Iconic Meaning in Persian Inscriptions on Mosques: A Grounded Theory Study of Orthography and Architecture. Michael Walker. 30:53 Feb.
(see Religion)

The Persian language plays a crucial role in the sacred communicative function of mosques, both in terms of the literary transmission of ideas and also via the aesthetic and connotative aspects of the ornamental design of the language in mosque architecture. This article examines the unique difficulties in translating from mosque inscriptions into recipient languages, due to the fact that the design of the inscriptions is often essential to their reading and the context of their meaning. Through modified grounded theory methodology and orthographic examination, the social role of both language and mosque architecture are examined to offer various approaches of dealing with not only Persian inscriptions, but the transliteration of non-Latin sacred inscriptions in general. The sociocultural issues germane to extended metaphor in Persian and the importance of systems of literation in terms of aesthetics are also discussed.

Inês é morta. Carlos Ramires. 30:34 March
(see Portuguese)

The fate of colloquial expressions varies considerably. Some have a short life—summer slang in Rio de Janeiro, for instance, will not survive temperatures below 80° Fahrenheit. Others, however, can last for centuries, preserve their original meaning, and still sound fresh.

The Greatest Experience in My Life. Krisztina Viragh (Translated by Louis Korda). 30:48 March
(see Hungarian)

As a non-Indo-European language, Hungarian stands more or less lonesome and exotic in the European language landscape; even more so because its strangely charming structure hardly tempts anyone to study it. Regardless of this, he who might, nonetheless, summon up the courage to do so will be rewarded by a widening of not only his linguistic horizon, but also of his linguistic awareness.

Ahmadou Kourouma’s Waiting for the Vote of the Wild Animals: Bestial Problems of Terminology and Symbolism. Carrol F. Coates. 30:29 April

Ahmadou Kourouma offers a satire of the antics of African dictators who played West against East during the 30-year Cold War. This ritual narrative of President Koyaga’s origins and seizure of power is presented as an oral recital by the hunters’ society’s bard. Some knowledge of African fauna and the terminology of hunting societies are essential for understanding the novel.

Of Literary Note: Sounding it Out¾ Alexis Levitin on Translating Poetry. Jo Anne Engelbert. 30:46 April.

Literary Translation as a Social Institution. Ingo R. Stoehr. 30:24 May
(see Localization)

Understanding literature in terms of the rules that determine its creation and dissemination raises important theoretical issues of literature as a social institution. At the same time, these issues have practical ramifications that help us understand literary translation as a social institution. Three main factors in the consideration of which text deserves publication in translation are: the importance of the original text, its appropriateness for translation, and the quality of the translation.

Translation and the University of Nebraska Press. Gertrud Graubart Champe. 30:28 May

Translation is in good hands at Nebraska.

The Consequences of Revival or a Work in Progress. Leslie Willson. 30:31 May
(see German)

Personal reflections on how a translator becomes engaged in meeting the demands of translating a new biography of a giant in German literature, Thomas Mann, whose biographer, Hermann Kurzke, is the equal of the Nobel Prize recipient with a stylistic tour de force that doubly challenges the translator.

On Translating Paul Verlaine. Norman R. Shapiro. 30:33 May

We read poems to experience a totality of emotion, one from which the arrangement of sounds and rhythms cannot be casually excluded in favor of the simple "message." As is often said, the translator’s job is to transmit both—or at least to attempt to do so.

Weaving In and Out of Spanish: A Look at Two Contemporary Bilingual Poetry Collections. Liliana Valenzuela. 30:37 May
(see Spanish)

In this article, I compare two en face translations going into and out of Spanish, the methods and styles used, and share what I learned from talking to the translators and one of the publishers about the state of bilingual poetry publications these days.

The Translator: Between Reality and Solitude. Leandro Wolfson (Translated by Queli Pariente Ahmed). Kenny Fitzgerald and Alicia Marshall. 30:49 May
(see Spanish)

It is generally assumed that the translator should be "invisible." This precept places him or her in a paradoxical condition as to his own personal language. Between the objective reality of the foreign text and the lone subjectivity of the "invisible" translator, there is the transitional space of creativity.

Language and Identity in Literary Translation: The Spanish Translation of How the García Girls Lost Their Accent by Julia Álvarez. Alicia B. Cipria. 30:43 June
(see Spanish)

The increasing amount of literature by Hispanic writers in the U.S. poses new challenges for translators when translating into Spanish. The centrality of linguistic identity in Julia Álvarez’s How the García Girls Lost Their Accent underscores the importance of appropriate dialectal representations when translating such literary works.

From English to Haitian through French Vocabulary: A Translation Challenge. Roger E. Savain. 30:49 June
(see French; Haitian)

Translating from English to Haitian is a challenge. Whether in the fields of education, health, medicine, or law (the main sources where the English texts to be translated into Haitian originate), there are at least three hurdles to clear: 1) the initial jargon; 2) the target reader; and 3) the effective language.

Translating Nobel Prize Winner Gao Xingjian’s Soul Mountain. Lily Liu. 30:18 July
(see Literary)

An interview with Dr. Mabel Lee, who translated 2000 Nobel Prize winner Gao Xingjian’s novel Soul Mountain into English.

In Francophone Regalia: A Review of Co-incidences: poètes anglophones du Québec. Albert Waldinger. 30:43 July
(see French)

In a poetic tribute to his city of Montreal, Canada, A.M. Klein wrote that its "English vocable and roll Ecossic,/Mollified by the parle of French,/Bilinguefact your air" (my emphasis, 1997:90). In other words, in this region it is as natural as "liquefaction" to move between two languages, making Pierre DesRuisseaux’s anthology, Co-incidences: poètes anglophones du Québec, as organic as a well-formed crystal.

An Editor’s Inside View of Publishing Spanish Textbooks. Isabel Picado. 30:28 Aug.
(see Spanish)

An overview of the difficulties encountered editing Spanish college and school textbooks: challenges brought about by the process of creating a text, the dearth of available resources, and the cultural and political issues confronted. Editors’ roles, struggles, and rewards are presented.

Doing the "Write" Stuff: The Translator’s First Duty. María-Luisa Arias-Moreno. 30:36 Nov./Dec.
(see Professional Development/Public Relations; Interpreter/Translator Training and Pedagogy)

A translator must be a good writer, identify different text types, and be capable of reproducing them in the target language. Therefore, writing courses must be an integral part of a translator’s professional training. This article is about what should be taught—and how—in writing courses for translator training.

Assessing the Spanish Translations of Marcel Proust’s First Volume. Herbert E. Craig. 30:40 Nov./Dec.
(see French; Spanish)

The first, and often acclaimed, Spanish translation of Proust’s initial volume, Por el camino de Swann (1920), has been challenged by four recent versions. Using the principles of translation assessment of Katharina Reiss (Translation Criticism—The Potentials and Limitations, 2000), the author of this article compares the strengths and weaknesses of this first translation by the Spanish poet Pedro Salinas with those by Julio Gómez de la Serna (1981), Carlos Manzano (1999), Mauro Armiño (2000), and Estela Canto (2000).

With(in) Translation: An Epistemology of the écriture of Hélène Cixous. Michael C. Walker. 30:45 Nov./Dec.
(see French)

Hélène Cixous defies categorization as both a writer and an individual. Her application of the conventions of French turns the language upon its head, personifying the nonpersonal, making material the nontangible, and playing on metaphors hidden within other metaphors.

Localization

Translating Texts, Interpreting Cultures. Lynn Visson. 30:28 Jan.
(see Interpreting; Russian)

Throughout history, the role of the simultaneous interpreter has been to translate both words and cultures. Cultural differences between Russian and English, for example, are evident in conference situations, diplomatic negotiations, and in the cross-cultural microcosms of Russian-American marriages, where communication requires a daily crossing of linguistic and cultural boundaries. The interpreter who is equally sensitive to both language and culture will succeed in rendering the speaker’s true intent and meaning.

Literary Translation as a Social Institution. Ingo R. Stoehr. 30:24 May
(see Literary)

Understanding literature in terms of the rules that determine its creation and dissemination raises important theoretical issues of literature as a social institution. At the same time, these issues have practical ramifications that help us understand literary translation as a social institution. Three main factors in the consideration of which text deserves publication in translation are: the importance of the original text, its appropriateness for translation, and the quality of the translation.

From Drum Brakes and Carburetors to Variable-Valve Intakes and Magnetic-Pulse Welding Technology. Rick Woyde. 30:40 June

Due to globalization, technical complexity, and worldwide growth, there has never been a better time to focus on the automotive industry. Whether you prefer short or long documents, there is plenty of work to go around and not enough capable translators.

How to Remain Competitive as a Freelance Translator. David W. Moyer. 30:17 July
(see Independent Contracting; Professional Development/Public Relations; Project Management)

As more and more freelance translators join the localization industry, many are wondering how they can distinguish themselves from their colleagues. What are project managers looking for when selecting a translator?

Challenges in Localization. Alessandra Muzzi (English text edited by Anne Milano Appel). 30:28 Nov./Dec.
(see Italian)

The software and Website localization market, in spite of the recent economic slow-down, is still active and able to offer interesting opportunities to those translators possessing, or willing to acquire and develop, the required technical knowledge. This article will attempt to explain what is meant by localization and to give an idea of what challenges it presents to localizers, particularly Italian localizers.

Medical

The Massachusetts Medical Interpreters Association’s Efforts to Achieve Medical Interpreter Certification. Maria-Paz Beltran Avery and Eduardo Berinstein. 30:25 Feb.
(see Interpreting; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

Massachusetts has been a national leader in the move toward the development and institutionalization of quality medical interpreter services provided by trained interpreters. This article will attempt to inform readers of efforts underway in Massachusetts, by the Certification Committee of the Massachusetts Medical Interpreters Association, to develop a medical

interpreter certification tool.

Interpreter Training Opportunities in Texas. Mary Esther Diaz. 30:29 Feb.
(see Interpreting; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

Medical and community interpreting is an emerging discipline. The growing need for medical and community interpreters has been previously discussed in the Chronicle. But how can interpreters prepare themselves to meet the qualifications required for this work? Here’s what is being done in Texas to prepare interpreters for these opportunities.

Translators and Globalization in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Nur Reinhart. 30:24 March

The pharmaceutical industry has experienced numerous well-publicized mergers and acquisitions within the last several years. The trend towards global consolidation and multinational drug giants may mean larger combined research and development budgets and more demand for the translation of medical research, clinical trials, etc. This means more opportunities, as well as new challenges, for translators.

Trajections: An Applied Linguistics Method for the Spanish Translation of a Medical Nomenclature. María Carolina Berra de Iubatti and Rosana P. Strobietto. 30:34 April
(see Spanish)

This article describes the translation techniques and the applied linguistics method of trajections used for the Spanish translation of a medical nomenclature. Its purpose is to depict the manifold aspects of translating and the various difficulties encountered in delivering a natural and faithfully transcoded medical nomenclature, which in turn secures terminological consistency. A background on the "Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine," a medical terminology coding system, will be presented and the differences between interface and reference terminologies explained. Translation procedures and techniques will be exemplified through terms solely extracted from the source terminology, with special focus on Malone’s linguistically based method of trajections as contrasted with the operative mode.  

Mixing Science and Art: Is It Possible to Develop a Single FACIT Translation for Both Portugal and Brazil? Benjamin J. Arnold. 30:38 Aug.
(see Portuguese)

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) Multilingual Translations Project works to adapt the FACIT health-related quality of life questionnaires into other languages for use in research and clinical trials worldwide. This project has developed an innovative iterative translation methodology (forward, backward, and multiple review) to ensure equivalence among the various language versions of the FACIT questionnaires. This article presents an overview of our general translation process and, more specifically, the methods used to obtain a Portuguese version of these quality of life questionnaires. The final goal is to create a translation that is cross-culturally suitable for Portuguese-speaking populations in both Europe and South America.

"I’m the Interpreter, Not the Translator" or Tips for Health Care Interpreters on How to Educate Providers. Cynthia E. Roat. 30:26 Oct.
(see Client Education; Interpreting)

Medical interpreters face an additional challenge in their job description: to educate the people for whom they interpret about what it means to work with an interpreter. But how do you do this when everyone’s in a hurry and you are the outsider?

Mentoring

The Truth about Mentoring. Courtney Searls-Ridge. 30:11 Feb.
(see Professional Development/Public Relations)

Find out what you know about modern mentoring, and learn how to begin to make mentoring work for you.

Reasons to be a Mentor. Courtney Searls-Ridge. 30:14 March
(see Professional Development/Public Relations)

Are you still wondering whether to volunteer to be an ATA mentor? Find out what’s in it for you.

Mentoring in the Translation Industry. Barbara Inge Karsch and Barbara Maria Verble. 30:13 July
(see Professional Development/Public Relations)

Formal mentoring is an excellent way to integrate novice translators into the real world of professional translation. A mentor provides guidance at a point where the junior professional needs it most. This article outlines an effective framework for mentoring translators and shows that not only mentees benefit from the program. 

Modern Mentoring: What It Is and How to Do It. Linda Phillips-Jones. 30:19 Aug.
(see Professional Development/Public Relations)

If you’re a successful professional, you can probably name one or more persons who helped you develop. Maybe you didn’t call them "mentors," but they went out of their way to help you discover more about yourself and learn how to succeed. Today, we call these important helpers mentors, and we realize how valuable—and skilled—they are, even though they usually do not realize it themselves. If you’re wise, you’ll continue to find and make use of a series of mentors throughout your life. This article describes what you can do to play both roles effectively.

Patents

Possible Strategies for the Translation of Foreign Patents. Steve Vlasta Vitek. 30:31 Sept.

Although the translation of patents from Japanese, German, and other languages into English is a busy field, it is sometimes avoided by talented beginning translators because it has a reputation for being difficult. In spite of the many challenges in this field of translation, such as illegible faxes, complicated terminology, and lack of context, translators can usually find a legible copy for free on the Internet. They can also find and confirm relevant technical terms through a search on Websites such as the Japanese Patent Office and European Patent Office Website. This article suggests some translation techniques for patent translation. It also points out some similarities between linguistic techniques that can be used for the translation of Japanese and German patents, based on logical similarities between the two languages.

Professional Development/Public Relations

The Truth about Mentoring. Courtney Searls-Ridge. 30:11 Feb.
(see Mentoring)

Find out what you know about modern mentoring, and learn how to begin to make mentoring work for you.

Reasons to be a Mentor. Courtney Searls-Ridge. 30:14 March
(see Mentoring)

Are you still wondering whether to volunteer to be an ATA mentor? Find out what’s in it for you.

Spreading the Gospel: Getting the Word Out About Who We Are and What We Do. Amanda Ennis. 30:30 March
(see Client Education)

An introduction to the ATA Public Relations Committee and some ideas for things you can do to get the word out, including an interview with Lillian Clementi (chair, NCATA PR Committee) of the National Capital Area Chapter of ATA on a novel and highly successful PR effort. 

Mentoring in the Translation Industry. Barbara Inge Karsch and Barbara Maria Verble. 30:13 July
(see Mentoring)

Formal mentoring is an excellent way to integrate novice translators into the real world of professional translation. A mentor provides guidance at a point where the junior professional needs it most. This article outlines an effective framework for mentoring translators and shows that not only mentees benefit from the program.

How to Remain Competitive as a Freelance Translator. David W. Moyer. 30:17 July
(see Independent Contracting; Localization; Project Management)

As more and more freelance translators join the localization industry, many are wondering how they can distinguish themselves from their colleagues. What are project managers looking for when selecting a translator?

Doing Your Part to Develop Professional Recognition. Lourdes V. Norton. 30:18 Aug.

This article is about the visibility versus invisibility of translators and interpreters and the importance of sharing our experiences to develop a better image and gain recognition.

Modern Mentoring: What It Is and How to Do It. Linda Phillips-Jones. 30:19 Aug.
(see Mentoring)

If you’re a successful professional, you can probably name one or more persons who helped you develop. Maybe you didn’t call them "mentors," but they went out of their way to help you discover more about yourself and learn how to succeed. Today, we call these important helpers mentors, and we realize how valuable—and skilled—they are, even though they usually do not realize it themselves. If you’re wise, you’ll continue to find and make use of a series of mentors throughout your life. This article describes what you can do to play both roles effectively.

How to Interview Corporations for In-House Positions. Mario Enrique Chávez. 30:23 Aug.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Independent Contracting)

Nowadays, working as an in-house translator, especially in the localization segment of the industry, is a highly doable goal that many of our freelancers are missing out on. The process of researching the corporations we might want to work for is further complicated by the geographic characteristics of our profession. Unlike doctors, lawyers, and auto mechanics, we cannot expect to find our ideal employers in the same city we live in. This article is part of an upcoming presentation at this year’s ATA Annual Conference in Los Angeles.

Doing the "Write" Stuff: The Translator’s First Duty. María-Luisa Arias-Moreno. 30:36 Nov./Dec.
(see Literary; Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

A translator must be a good writer, identify different text types, and be capable of reproducing them in the target language. Therefore, writing courses must be an integral part of a translator’s professional training. This article is about what should be taught—and how—in writing courses for translator training.

Project Management

The Proof is in the Reading. Richard N. Weltz. 30:12 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Client Education; Proofreading; Quality Assurance)

Translators, translation companies, and translation end-users often do not share a common understanding of the terms edit, review, and proofread. This brief article attempts to provide a basis for dispelling the confusion caused by use of these words in the translation process.

Quality—An Ethical Duty. Monique-Paule Tubb. 30:26 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Client Education; Proofreading; Quality Assurance)

Quality should be the number one concern of all translators, translation project managers, and company owners. The company may bear the final responsibility, but the translator plays a major role in the quality process and should feel that anything less than perfect is not good enough. The only way to provide a flawless product to clients is for all parties to feel that they are an essential part of the team.

How to Remain Competitive as a Freelance Translator. David W. Moyer. 30:17 July
(see Independent Contracting; Localization; Professional Development/Public Relations)

As more and more freelance translators join the localization industry, many are wondering how they can distinguish themselves from their colleagues. What are project managers looking for when selecting a translator?

Maintaining Quality in the Flood of Translation Projects: A Model for Practical Quality Assurance. Gabrielle Vollmar (Translated from the German by student translators at the Translation and Interpretation Institute in Seattle, Washington). 30:24 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Quality Assurance)

Faster and faster production cycles are putting increased pressure on translation companies to translate more text at a faster pace and lower cost. All too often this is at the expense of translation quality: a tight schedule does not allow time and money for a thorough quality check. However, the choice between maintaining quality and meeting a deadline does not have to be a dilemma. The model for practical quality assurance of translations that are subcontracted to other companies, as outlined in this article, offers a possible solution.

Translating for an International Corporation (in-house and freelance). Ilona Helen Volmer. 30:28 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Independent Contracting)

In our industry, professionals need to be more than just excellent translators. Whether they work for a company or as a freelancer, they also need to know about project management and business administration. What is the typical process of a translation project and how do our translators fit in?

Terminology Management Issues. Fabrizio Siracusa. 30:40 Oct.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Independent Contracting)

Terminology management is considered by many as an extravagant expense and an unnecessary perk. However, the lack of terminology management is often to blame for inferior translations and, often, higher costs.

Proofreading

The Proof is in the Reading. Richard N. Weltz. 30:12 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Client Education; Project Management; Quality Assurance)

Translators, translation companies, and translation end-users often do not share a common understanding of the terms edit, review, and proofread. This brief article attempts to provide a basis for dispelling the confusion caused by use of these words in the translation process.

The Translator-Proofreader Pair: Duet or Duel? Michèle F. Landis. 30:14 April
(see Quality Assurance)

Translation procedures vary from one company to another. Most of the time, translating entails proofreading. Organizing a productive interaction between the translator and the proofreader may be one of the most efficient ways to ensure the best result.

Quality—An Ethical Duty. Monique-Paule Tubb. 30:26 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Client Education; Project Management; Quality Assurance)

Quality should be the number one concern of all translators, translation project managers, and company owners. The company may bear the final responsibility, but the translator plays a major role in the quality process and should feel that anything less than perfect is not good enough. The only way to provide a flawless product to clients is for all parties to feel that they are an essential part of the team.

The Meticulous Editor as a Translation Quality Resource. G. David Heath. 30:19 May
(see Quality Assurance)

With the increasing importance of subject matter specialization and a growing awareness of quality as a requirement for competing successfully in the translation business, few translators or translation agencies now question the need for editing both before and after translation. This article looks at the benefits that translators and translation agencies might expect an experienced editor to bring to their specialized translation projects. It examines the important, but frequently misunderstood, differences between editing and proofreading, and outlines some of the main quality criteria that technical editors focus on. It also looks at the increasingly important roles of online (or on-screen) editing, as well as terminology extraction tools and strategies for dealing with them.

Quality Assurance

The Proof is in the Reading. Richard N. Weltz. 30:12 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Client Education; Project Management; Proofreading)

Translators, translation companies, and translation end-users often do not share a common understanding of the terms edit, review, and proofread. This brief article attempts to provide a basis for dispelling the confusion caused by use of these words in the translation process.

The Translator-Proofreader Pair: Duet or Duel? Michèle F. Landis. 30:14 April
(see Proofreading)

Translation procedures vary from one company to another. Most of the time, translating entails proofreading. Organizing a productive interaction between the translator and the proofreader may be one of the most efficient ways to ensure the best result.

Quality—An Ethical Duty. Monique-Paule Tubb. 30:26 April
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Client Education; Project Management; Proofreading)

Quality should be the number one concern of all translators, translation project managers, and company owners. The company may bear the final responsibility, but the translator plays a major role in the quality process and should feel that anything less than perfect is not good enough. The only way to provide a flawless product to clients is for all parties to feel that they are an essential part of the team.

Translation Quality is the Difference Between "March Madness" and the Craziness of March. Mercedes M. Pellet. 30:11 May

Creating quality is difficult. It is impossible to achieve without an orderly process that is continuously monitored, analyzed, and improved.

The Meticulous Editor as a Translation Quality Resource. G. David Heath. 30:19 May
(see Proofreading)

With the increasing importance of subject matter specialization and a growing awareness of quality as a requirement for competing successfully in the translation business, few translators or translation agencies now question the need for editing both before and after translation. This article looks at the benefits that translators and translation agencies might expect an experienced editor to bring to their specialized translation projects. It examines the important, but frequently misunderstood, differences between editing and proofreading, and outlines some of the main quality criteria that technical editors focus on. It also looks at the increasingly important roles of online (or on-screen) editing, as well as terminology extraction tools and strategies for dealing with them. 

Maintaining Quality in the Flood of Translation Projects: A Model for Practical Quality Assurance. Gabrielle Vollmar (Translated from the German by student translators at the Translation and Interpretation Institute in Seattle, Washington). 30:24 Sept.
(see Agencies, Bureaus, and Corporations; Project Management)

Faster and faster production cycles are putting increased pressure on translation companies to translate more text at a faster pace and lower cost. All too often this is at the expense of translation quality: a tight schedule does not allow time and money for a thorough quality check. However, the choice between maintaining quality and meeting a deadline does not have to be a dilemma. The model for practical quality assurance of translations that are subcontracted to other companies, as outlined in this article, offers a possible solution.

Religion

Orthography and Iconic Meaning in Persian Inscriptions on Mosques: A Grounded Theory Study of Orthography and Architecture. Michael Walker. 30:53 Feb.
(see Literary)

The Persian language plays a crucial role in the sacred communicative function of mosques, both in terms of the literary transmission of ideas and also via the aesthetic and connotative aspects of the ornamental design of the language in mosque architecture. This article examines the unique difficulties in translating from mosque inscriptions into recipient languages, due to the fact that the design of the inscriptions is often essential to their reading and the context of their meaning. Through modified grounded theory methodology and orthographic examination, the social role of both language and mosque architecture are examined to offer various approaches of dealing with not only Persian inscriptions, but the transliteration of non-Latin sacred inscriptions in general. The sociocultural issues germane to extended metaphor in Persian and the importance of systems of literation in terms of aesthetics are also discussed.

Semantics

Miffed, Upset, Angry, or Furious? Translating Emotion Words. Jeremy Brown and Peter J. Silzer. 30:40 July

A receptor language seldom has an adequate one-to-one equivalent for a source-language word. Emotion words provide an interesting example of the special difficulties of translation. This article shows how Natural Semantic Metalanguage explains emotion words in English, Malay, and other languages, and how semantic studies affect translation.

Software and Online Resources

Choosing the Right Tool for the Job—Advice from the Support Manager. Denise Baldwin. 30:48 Jan.

Denise Baldwin, a product support manager at SDL International, provides a no-nonsense guide to the benefits of translation memory and the important criteria and features to look for when choosing a translation memory tool.

New Tools for the Times. Alexandre Mikheeve. 30:63 Feb.
(see Dictionaries; Russian)

Catch Those Internet Buzzwords. Frank Dietz. 30:33 March

The rapid growth of the Internet has brought us not only a proliferation of Web-based services, but also spawned numerous new terms. If you are translating from English into another language and are dealing with texts about the Internet, you might have run into trouble before.

Web Authoring Tools and the Challenge of French-Language Web Design. Marco Maertens. 30:16 April
(see French)

While it is getting progressively easier to design and display French-language Web pages, enough pitfalls remain for the unsuspecting Web designer that necessitate special attention. This article examines the problems encountered with different Web page design software packages when inserting accented characters, as well as some common problems with particular characters, such as the euro symbol and the "œ" ligature. Finally, the article discusses some stylistic concerns that are unique to French-language Web pages.

Bilingual and Multilingual Websites as a Translation Resource. Joan Wallace. 30:24 April
(see French)

The proliferation of sites on the Internet has brought translators a treasure trove of new resources. Among them is the number of sites that are now available in multiple languages. As with everything found on the Internet, such sites are a potential gold mine, provided they are used with discretion and a critical eye.

Been There, Done That—And I’ve Got Déjà Vu to Keep Track of It! Renate Sieberichs. 30:39 April

There are now several very powerful translation productivity tools that could qualify as "translation programs" in certain situations—and they each fit on a CD-ROM. The program I use is Déjà Vu Interactive, and I would like to share some of my experiences with it. My intention is to give those who have never worked with a translation productivity tool (also known as translation memory software) some examples of what such a program can do, to debunk some of the myths about translation software, and to offer a few words of caution.

Frequently and Less Frequently Asked Questions on German Legal Translation. Margaret Marks. 30:14 June
(see German; Legal)

This article looks back on seven years of reading translators’ questions about German<>English legal translation on FLEFO (CompuServe’s Foreign Language Education Forum), mailing lists, BBSs, and newsgroups. It offers many questions and a few answers.  

Sites of Interest for Translators: How to Find Information on Potential Clients. Frieda Ruppaner-Lind. 30:21 Sept.
(see Independent Contracting)

What do you know about your potential client? This article gives a brief overview of valuable Internet resources for freelance translators, featuring several lists and archives that can be helpful in gathering information before accepting assignments.

Successfully Managing Flash Localization Projects. Shaunessy P. O’Brien. 30:42 Sept.

Macromedia’s Flash has become a vital tool for Web publishers and users alike. However, many of the features that contribute to Flash’s overwhelming success have also made it difficult to use during the localization stage of a Website. This article outlines some of the most common challenges of a Flash localization project and offers suggestions for how to overcome them.

In Search of. Andy Ras-Work. 30:17 Oct.
(see Independent Contracting)

Knowledge workers spend extensive amounts of time searching for information both on the company intranet and on the Internet. Having a solid understanding of search techniques and the different types of search tools can help knowledge workers dramatically increase their productivity. This article highlights the various ways a search can be conducted and how workers can ensure that their searches produce the most accurate results and deliver only relevant information.

Special Needs

Serving Special Needs in Technical Communication. Dan Voss. 30:12 Feb.

Some 43 million Americans have disabilities, under the definitions provided in the American Disabilities Act. Only one-fourth of working-age Americans with disabilities who are capable of fully productive employment have jobs. Grim statistical realities like these prompted the Society for Technical Communication to form a Special Needs Committee (SNC) to address the needs of its members (as well as its end users) who have disabilities. This article provides a brief history of the SNC, outlines its goals and objectives, and introduces some of its members. The SNC welcomes the development of a "sister" group within the ATA, and would like to pool resources to help fellow professionals whose careers—and lives—have been derailed by disabilities.

Subtitling

Subs and Dubs—Translating for the Media. Manouche Ragsdale. 30:19 March

A condensed overview of the major steps for script adaptation/translation.

Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy

How Can We Incorporate More of the Real World into Translator Training? Daniel Linder. 30:33 Jan.

In theory, translator trainers prepare students to seek work and to meet the challenges of real-world professional translation. In practice, however, we often prepare our students inadequately. Since these challenges may threaten the quality of our students’ subsequent professional translation, we should harness them as didactic tools for the classroom.

Interpreter Training in the United States. Harry Obst. 30:17 Feb.
(see Interpreting)

Most of the interpreters working in the U.S. today never had any meaningful training. The fault lies mostly with American colleges and universities for refusing to fund reliable interpreter training programs and with the American business community for not demanding such training. The article reviews available programs, successful curricula, and the qualifications needed to provide reliable consecutive interpretation.

Writing Instruction in the Education of Hungarian Translators. Tibor Koltay. 30:20 Feb.
(see Hungarian)

Professional Documentation is a course designed to make Hungarian students of English translation familiar with written genres that go beyond the rubric of translation. The most stable, and in many regards most important, part of the course is writing abstracts. For abstracting, different sets of rules can be compiled and used in the course.

The Massachusetts Medical Interpreters Association’s Efforts to Achieve Medical Interpreter Certification. Maria-Paz Beltran Avery and Eduardo Berinstein. 30:25 Feb. (see Interpreting; Medical)

Massachusetts has been a national leader in the move toward the development and institutionalization of quality medical interpreter services provided by trained interpreters. This article will attempt to inform readers of efforts underway in Massachusetts, by the Certification Committee of the Massachusetts Medical Interpreters Association, to develop a medical interpreter certification tool.

Interpreter Training Opportunities in Texas. Mary Esther Diaz. 30:29 Feb.
(see Interpreting; Medical)

Medical and community interpreting is an emerging discipline. The growing need for medical and community interpreters has been previously discussed in the Chronicle. But how can interpreters prepare themselves to meet the qualifications required for this work? Here’s what is being done in Texas to prepare interpreters for these opportunities.

The First Workshop on the Teaching of Interpreter Training Held in Taiwan, Republic of China—A Pilot Study. Sheng-Jie Chen and Fritz G. Hensey. 30:36 Sept.
(see Chinese; Interpreting)

This study addresses the shortage of interpreter-trainers in Taiwan and proposes a solution—a teacher-training workshop. Such a workshop was held for the first time in Taiwan, December 15-17, 2000. This article investigates the process of implementation of the workshop and analyzes the feedback of participants. It is hoped that the concepts derived from this study may enhance teacher-training in similar workshops.

The National Center for State Courts and the Consortium for State Court Interpreter Certification Program. Madelynn Herman and William Hewitt. 30:20 Oct.
(see Interpreting; Legal)

This article briefly outlines the mission and goals of the National Center for State Courts. It then describes the Consortium for State Court Interpreters Certification Program, starting with initial research and reform efforts on court interpreting, how and why the Consortium was founded, as well as requirements and advantages to Consortium membership. Consortium activities, accomplishments, and future directions are also discussed.

Interpreter Training Using Cooperative Learning Approaches and Improvised Simultaneous Interpreting Equipment. Sheng-Jie Chen. 30:30 Oct.
(see Interpreting)

A study of the implementation of a simultaneous interpretation course using improvised SI equipment and cooperative learning approaches.

Voices from the Trenches: Practicing Translators Share Their Insights. William Skinner. 30:34 Oct.

Detailed training in the finer points of specialized terminology, important as it is, is simply not enough to make an aspiring translator competent. Performing high-quality research on deadline, knowing which sources are reliable within a particular field, and producing a lucid, accurate, and complete translation are essential, but really just starting points. Add solid business sense, excellent record keeping, grace under pressure, and collegiality, and you’re starting to get somewhere.

Translation and Technology: Bridging the Gap Between the University and the Marketplace. Edwin Gentzler. 30:17 Nov./Dec.

Recently, the skills required of translators have changed dramatically. What once was primarily a linguistic activity has evolved into a complex practice requiring both advanced language and computer skills. While universities supply linguistic training, they often fall short on the technology part. Based on a new course at the Translation Center at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, this article covers a range of new technologies (including multilingual word processing, desktop publishing, Internet codes, e-mail, translation dictionaries, and Internet discussion groups) designed to help the translators better transition to the new demands of the marketplace.

Doing the "Write" Stuff: The Translator’s First Duty. María-Luisa Arias-Moreno. 30:36 Nov./Dec.
(see Literary; Professional Development/Public Relations)

Everybody agrees that a translator must be, above all, a good writer. They must identify different text types and be capable of reproducing them in the target language. Therefore, writing courses must be an integral part of a translator’s professional training. This article is about what should be taught—and how—in writing courses for translator training. Areas to be covered include both the students’ native and foreign language.

Travel and Tourism

Translating Tourist Texts. Adrián Fuentes Luque. 30:49 Feb.

The development of the tourist sector has brought a wealth of diverse types of tourism-related texts translated into different target languages and cultures. The intercultural mediation of the translator reveals itself as being of paramount importance in the translation of this type of text. Reader assessment studies can greatly improve the quality of reader expectations and translator feedback.

Voice-over

Voice-over Opportunities for Foreign Language. Ines Swaney. 30:16 March.

Abundant and rewarding opportunities are available to you in the voice-over field, as the actual recorded voice or behind the scenes as a language coach, translator, assistant director, or language juggler.

Women’s Studies

Gender Issues in Translation Studies. Vanessa Leonardi. 30:40 Feb.
(see Literary)

A brief review of literature written on the issue of feminist translation studies. The article will analyze gender differences in translation by looking at the way women have been using language in translation as a strategy to spread or communicate their feminist ideals. Broadly speaking, translation here means the act of reproducing a text whose meaning is transferred from one language to another. But what kind of relationship exists between gender issues and translation studies? How is the equivalence of a text maintained in feminist translation, and to what extent? In order to answer these questions, it is important to analyze the phenomenon of feminism in relation to language within the field of translation studies. Particular attention will be given to the analysis of technical difficulties involved in translating women’s language, as well as to a number of criticisms addressed to these translators.       

MONTHLY COLUMNS

(Dictionaries Reviews Compiled by Albert Bork)

For complete reviews of dictionaries published in 2001, please click on the Chronicle page option (located on the sidebar) and select Dictionary Reviews from the main menu listings.

French

German

Russian

Spanish

Swedish

Translation Studies

(Humor and Translation by Mark Herman)

(The Translation Inquirer by John Decker)

MISCELLANEOUS/ASSOCIATION-RELATED NEWS

(Accreditation)

(Accreditation Forum)

(ATA Chapter Profiles)

    (ATA Division Reports)

Chinese

The newly established Chinese Language Division needs your help and ideas.

French

The French Language Division is strong and active, but can progress only with the help of its many volunteers.

German

An overview of our activities during the past year, as well as a preview of what is to come.

Since early 1995, ATA members have had the opportunity to participate in a biannual, two-week study trip to Erlangen, Germany, usually taking place in late spring. This year, 25 members of ATA’s German Language Division went on the tour, April 29-May 12. The trip was designed to help improve participants’ knowledge and understanding of Germany’s past and present challenges from the aspects of culture, politics, industry, history—and leisure.

Japanese

The JLD did well, is doing well, and the future looks good.

Nordic

The Nordic Division already has a full schedule of events planned for the new year, including the WisCONFERENCE.

Slavic

The Slavic Languages Division, whose mission it is to represent translators of all languages of the former Soviet bloc, faces several challenges, among them expanding its member base to include more translators of languages other than Russian and maintaining its printed newsletter.

Spanish

The ATA Spanish Language Division is moving along at a good clip, thanks to the work of many dedicated volunteers.  

(International Certification Study by Jiri Stejskal)

(From the President: Ann G. Macfarlane)

(From the Executive Director: Walter Bacak, CAE)

(From the President-elect: Thomas L. West III)

(From the Treasurer: Eric McMillan)

  (ATA Board of Directors Elections)

(Candidates: Scott Brennan (president-elect); Courtney Searls-Ridge (Secretary); Jiri Stejskal (treasurer); Virginia Benmaman (director); Beatriz Bonnet (director); Robert Croese (director); Clove Lynch (director); Robert Sette (director); Madeleine Velguth (director)

(ATA Honors and Awards)

(Winners: Mario R. Legido and Bethany Michele Korp)