1999 Chronicle Index

Feature Articles (By Subject)

BUSINESS

Keeping the Lines of Communication Open: Translating French Corporate Newsletters. Chris Durban. 28:60 Jan. (see Client Education, French)

Corporate newsletters let businesses reach out to overseas clients, prospects, employees, and partners at regular intervals. Not surprisingly, foreign-language versions work best if translators are aware of the big picture and negotiate the room they need to adapt source texts.

Translating American Business Texts: "Sound and Fury Signifying Nothing." Nur Reinhart. 28:49 March.

American corporate texts nowadays are loaded with the jargon of popular business and management "gurus" and MBA schools. If you've ever pulled your hair out trying to translate these into another language in a meaningful way, you are not alone.

The Rise of the Localization Industry. Michael Anobile, 28:51 June. (see Localization)

Localisation Industry Standards Association Managing Director Michael Anobile comments on the content and scope of the product localization and language service industry's impact on international business. He explains why localization is the global business imperative of the 21st century.

Affaristi e Affari: Do You Know the Language of Business? Jonathan Hine. 28:55 June. (see Italian)

No where is the UPS jingle, "Moving at the speed of business," more true than in Italian. Like English, the language of the Bel Paese accepts neologisms and foreign terms readily, challenging

Italian<>English technical translators to keep current. Financial, commercial, and accounting terminology add elements of inconsistency and variability unmatched by other fields. Nevertheless, it is rewarding work for the adetti ai lavori.

CLIENT EDUCATION

Keeping the Lines of Communication Open: Translating French Corporate Newsletters. Chris Durban. 28:60 Jan. (see Business, French)

Corporate newsletters let businesses reach out to overseas clients, prospects, employees, and partners at regular intervals. Not surprisingly, foreign-language versions work best if translators are aware of the big picture and negotiate the room they need to adapt source texts.

Client Satisfaction in the Translation Business. Katya Paz-Soldán Beall and Sedef Olcer. 28:18 Feb.

Clear and precise communication before, during, and after the project between parties is essential in completing translation projects successfully. Both sides must understand each other's expectations to the very last detail and be prepared to cooperate in tackling the unexpected. Translation projects require not only linguistic skills, but also established procedures on both sides to minimize the impact of constant changes in scope, schedule, resources, and cost. In our dynamic world of translation, establishing long-term relationships is the key to leverage, expertise, resources, and profitability.

Outreach: A Taste of Translation. Madeleine Velguth. 28:22 Feb. (see French)

This module can be used as an outreach tool for a variety of audiences wanting to know more about the art and skills involved in translation. The hands-on, English-only activities for individuals or groups illustrate the sensitivity to both language and culture that are needed to bring a text successfully from one language into another.

Re-Evaluating Client Education. Julian Kilker. 28:26 Feb. (see Localization)

Good education involves exchanging information between the localization contractor and the client in a positive manner and at little additional cost to either party. Major tactics include: a) using every stage of client contact, from proposal to project evaluation, as an opportunity to educate and learn; b) emphasizing clear, goal-oriented communication; and c) seeking out and maintaining quality information resources. This article uses real-life examples to demonstrate typical successes and pitfalls in client education. It suggests a different attitude towards client education which emphasizes that the localization contractor and the client both learn during a project.

Professional Literature for Translators. Mordecai Schreiber. 28:35 Feb.

The world has yet to look upon translators as true professionals, and many translators have yet to see themselves as such. Consequently, there has been hardly any professional literature available for translators all these years, either in the U.S. or elsewhere. The time has come to take a new look at this problem, and to remedy the situation through both the private sector and the public and government sectors. Such literature encompasses much more than dictionaries. It includes practical reference books which deal with all aspects of translation, training materials, desktop references, and more.

An Outsider Looks at T&I. Marv Rubinstein. 28:49 Aug.

If you want translation and interpretation to be treated respectfully as an honorable profession, you must demand respect.

Language as a Profession: Promoting the Industry. Diane D. Baughn. 28:34 Oct.

We all know how hard it is to get the recognition we deserve as professionals. It is time to start changing the current view of the language industry. The best way is for language professionals to educate the community about what we do. Young people as well as business professionals need this education. This article discusses ways you can help heighten awareness in your community and among your clients.

CONFERENCE REPORTS (WORLDWIDE)

The 13th Annual Conference of the Institute of Translation and Interpreting in Manchester, England. Jim Honeychuck. 28:60 July.

The annual conference of this professional association of translators and interpreters in the United Kingdom featured presentations by those who translate for films, television shows, book publishing, and other media.

European Translators Colloquium in Straelen. Patrick Labriola. 28:62 July.

The European Translators Colloquium provides numerous stipends, a place to work, and resources to eligible translators worldwide.

COPYRIGHT

Translation and Copyright. Michael Trittipo. 28:27 Jan. (see Literary)

Although translations should be sense-for-sense, not word-for-word, they are nonetheless a kind of copy. U.S. copyright law expressly brings translations within its scope. It defines when a translation can be made or ordered, and who owns or can do what with a translation when it is done and delivered.

Intellectual Property Rights and Terminology Management. Sue Ellen Wright. 28:32 Jan. (see Literary)

The extent to which terminological information is covered by existing national copyright laws and international conventions is open to question. Creators of terminological databases traditionally represent both sides of the copyright equation in that they function both as users of copyrighted information and as creators of potentially copyrightable compilations. This article attempts to define the scope of copyright concerns as they affect terminological data and explores the effect that changing attitudes and capabilities on the Internet may have on the relationship between terminological data and copyright in electronic environments. In addition to examining aspects of the U.S. copyright law that may be applicable to terminological databases, ownership rights to terminological data are discussed. The creation of the new European sui generis right governing otherwise non-copyrightable electronic data is introduced, along with a brief view of related debates that are taking place in the U.S. within the framework of the government's information Infrastructure Task Force. Finally, the role of international standardization in facilitating user-friendly recording and billing procedures with respect to proprietary online dictionaries is discussed.

CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES

Translation as a Function of the Human Mind. Zuzana Kulhánková. 28:39 Feb. (see Localization)

Language is a rendition of our thoughts into words and sentences. We do not think in words, but in concepts or ideas. We do not feel in words, but in emotions. The smallest unit of translation is therefore not a word, but an idea, an image, and an emotion. Translation crosses boundaries of time as well as those of culture. The human mind exists within the boundaries of time and culture. Although the world is becoming smaller, cultural differences are very strong and we need to be humble about the limitations of translation.

Intercultural Aspects of Translation. Michael Schmitz. 28:51 March.

Taking a translation from Slovak to German as an example, the author demonstrates that the translator's disregard for cultural differences can lead to serious misunderstanding. This is particularly true of words and topics in connection with "nation," "race," and "blood," which have distinctly marked political connotations in German.

Learning a Foreign Language without Translating. Arkady Zilberman. 28:54 March.

Our memory stores images or feelings as the primary source of information; words are secondary. Words appear on the tip of our tongue automatically after being brought to life by an image or a feeling. To learn a foreign language effectively—the natural way—one has to facilitate the creation of a new language speech center in his/her brain while turning off subconscious translation into the native tongue.

INTERPRETING

Appellate Court Decisions Involving Interpreter-related Issues. Virginia Benmaman. 28:30 March. (see Legal)

An investigation of interpreter-related issues raised on appeal and subsequent appellate court rulings has provided much interesting and relevant information. An overview is presented of historical precedents, the perspective generally held by appellate courts toward trial court discretion and rulings, and the standards of review applied to appellate cases. Examples of issues raised on appeal, and cases citing these issues, as well as the appellate decisions in these cases are presented.

Use and Interpretation of Discourse Markers in a Bilingual Courtroom. Azucena C. Rigney. 28:40 March. (see Legal)

A discussion of the use and translation of discourse markers (e.g., "well," "all right," "I mean," "you know," etc.) in the English/Spanish bilingual courtroom. These particles, which have zero lexical meaning but full pragmatic significance, are a challenge to interpreters who must render everything that is said in court without alterations of any kind. This article will show how the interpretation of discourse markers is guided by criteria of cross-linguistic equivalence, structural needs, and difficulties in language processing.

No Beach Vacation...but better than Two Weeks in the Gulag. Laura E. Wolfson. 28:12 April. (see Russian)

The Federal Court of the southern district of New York (Manhattan) held a two-week course in January for Russian court interpreters. A participant in the class reports.

Interpreting: The Importance of Proper Preparation. Bruni Johnson. 28: 20 May.

What can interpreters do to better prepare themselves for the assignments they receive? Some of the issues which will be addressed in this article include: how to obtain information, what an agency and/or interpreter can do to have clients employ their services more than once, what qualities the agency should look for in an interpreter and the duties and responsibilities of both, and why translating and interpreting complement one another. The article addresses interpretation agencies as well as interpreters.

Certifying Medical Interpreters. Cynthia Roat. 28:23 May. (see Medical)

Certification of medical and social service interpreters has been in place in Washington State since 1992. This article describes the medical certification process; analyzes interesting patterns in the attempt rates, pass rates, and recidivism rates; and proposes some suggestions related to certifying medical interpreters.

Cognitive and Discourse Constraints in Simultaneous Interpretation. Edson J. M. Lopes. 28:45 July. (see Medical)

This article examines some constraints that affect interpreters' performance and analyzes some research conducted in order to identify and cope with such interference. It suggests further investigation on the subject.

Skill, Art, and Science: What Makes a Good Interpreter? Tereza d'Avila Braga. 28:20 Aug. (see Portuguese)

Based on a presentation given during the fifth Annual Spring Meeting of ATA's Portuguese Language Division in New Orleans last May, this article is a summary of research on, and offers reflections about, the business of interpreting from the perspective of a full-time translator and interpreter working with Brazilian Portuguese.

Interpreter Training Challenges in the 21st Century. Inge Urbancic. 28:20 Nov./Dec. (see Language Services: Supply and Demand, Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

In the age of rapid immigration to the U.S. and globalization of business, the demand for language services, especially the need for interpreters and translators, has grown exponentially. The challenge of conducting non-language-specific training programs, especially in exotic languages and in remote locations, faces us at the brink of the next century. This article will discuss one program's effort to create and conduct effective interpreter training programs in the face of these challenges.

INTERVIEWS

Looking Back and Forward: An Interview with Patricia Newman. Bob Johnston. 28:52 July.

Pat Newman shares a lifetime of experience and her thoughts on translation as a way of life. Her many careers and avocations, including electrical engineer, translator, soccer mom, lexicographer, project coordinator, and dog trainer, have given her a unique vantage point, from which she talks about her own entry into translation, the good and bad in the translating business, gives advice to young translators, and shares some pet peeves.

Interview with Ye. G. Kovalenko. Jim Walker. 28:27 April. (see Russian)

Dictionaries are an essential tool of translation. Translators should recognize the tremendous effort that goes into creating them and express their appreciation to lexicographers.

Wish Fulfillment for Legal Translators: Tom West on His New Dictionary. Lillian S. Clementi. 28:31 May. (see Legal, Spanish)

The newly released Dictionary of Law and Business promises to be a dream come true for Spanish legal translators. Compiled and edited by Tom West, an American attorney-turned-translator, with support from practicing translators, it provides U.S.—not British—equivalents for hard-to-find legal and business terms collected from all 20 Spanish-speaking countries. During a recent visit to Washington, DC, West stopped long enough to answer questions about his new dictionary, his plans for a French-English edition, and his approach to legal translation.

An Interview with Jorge Couto, H.E. (His Excellency) the President of Instituto Camões. Clotilde Mesquita. 28:27 Aug. (see Portuguese)

Talking With Andre Moskowitz. Kirk Anderson and Andre Moskowitz. 28:61 Oct. (see Spanish)

Kirk Anderson, former president of the Florida Chapter of ATA, interviews Andre Moskowitz, the assistant administrator of ATA's Spanish Language Division, and asks him about his background and his views on the Spanish language, the field of translation and interpreting, T&I training, and his interest in the study of Spanish dialects.

LANGUAGES

(Arabic)

Is the Middle East Near Croatia? Salma Zakaria. 28:43 Feb.

An account of one user's experience with Microsoft Windows 95 Arabic "Upgrade."

What Is Your Translation Methodology? Shuckran Kamal. 28:48 Feb.

An exercise in text analysis.

(Belorusian)

The Restoration of a Language: Belorusian in Medical Discourse. Michael Walker. 28:58 Nov./Dec. (see Medical)

This article presents an informal examination and review of qualitative sociolinguistic aspects of the restoration of Belorusian to contemporary usage. Drawing from the author's experience in co-authoring a biomedical research study regarding infection control in the former Soviet Union, it investigates the duality between the political and social desire to restore Belorusian, in place of Russian, as the national language of Belarus and the pragmatic need for a functional, modern language in professional discourse. Both applied and sociocultural aspects of this re-integration are addressed. The theoretical background behind linguistic nationalism in the former Soviet Republics is briefly covered, allowing both a practical and conceptual understanding of the processes of language transformation at work in Belarus and other former Soviet Republics and satellite states.

(Bulgarian)

Bulgarian—A Slavic Language with a Non-Slavic Name. Emilia Balke. 28:30 April.

The historic data about the Proto-Bulgarians and their contribution to the world and to the cultures they came into contact with is scanty and often contradictory. There are many uncertainties about their ethnic origin, the origin of their language, and even the origin of their name. One fact, however, remains undeniable: their lasting impact on the Bulgarian culture.

(Chinese)

Panel Sessions on Issues of Chinese<>English Translation. Yuanxi Ma. 28:14 Aug.

A Short History of the Chinese Writing System. Richard Altwarg. 28:29 Sept. (see Literary)

An outline of the history of the Chinese writing system, tracing the development from its origins in the second millennium BC to the present day. Examples of the main script systems and their appearance are given.

Exploring the Difference Between Traditional and Simplified Chinese: Conversion Problems Between the Two Versions. Frank Mou. 28:34 Sept.

In the business of translation, tailoring the translation to the target market is essential. While most translation agencies and Chinese translators agree that Traditional Chinese is visibly different from Simplified Chinese, many of them often do not consider that native Chinese-readers familiar with one version may have problems comprehending a text when it is provided to them in another version which they are not accustomed to reading. In this article, I will review some of the differences between Traditional and Simplified Chinese pertaining to the conversion between the two versions, and argue that extensive fine-tuning is needed to achieve a successful conversion.

Frequently Asked Questions on the Issue of Chinese Translation. Dave Chen. 28:36 Sept.

This article is intended to answer some frequently asked questions concerning translation into Chinese, and to clarify some misunderstanding and misconception in that field.

Attempting the Impossible? Yuanxi Ma and Elizabeth A. Tu. 28:40 Sept.

This article is an attempt to render a Chinese pop song into English by presenting two different versions (one is a basically literal translation and the other a liberal rendition) for discussion. Cultural, contextual, and linguistic aspects were taken into consideration for this endeavor.

Chinese Transliterations. Jessie Lu. 28:43 Sept. (see Localization)

New product and company names appear daily in commercial English-to-Chinese translations. A well-designed Chinese transliteration often becomes critical when marketing a product and building a company's image in the Chinese market. Therefore, transliteration has emerged as an important issue in contemporary translation. The purpose of this article is to suggest basic elements that need to be considered in English-to-Chinese transliteration and to provide some examples for discussion.

Using PostScript to Deliver Chinese Language Translations Electronically. Jim Ingram and Elizabeth A. Tu. 28:50 Sept. (see Technology: Software Reviews)

A description of how PostScript and other widely available software can be used to provide useful solutions to the problems faced by Chinese-language translators when working with Western clients who have little incentive to develop and support Chinese-language computing environments.

(Czech)

A Brief History of Czech Literary Translating. Jiri Stejskal. 28:23 April. (see Literary)

This article outlines the development of literary translation in Czech lands from the Middle Ages to World War II, from the word-for-word translations of canonical texts through the aberrations of the Revivalists, to the sophisticated modern translations of Vrchlický, Sládek, and Fischer.

(Danish)

Danish—A Language with a Future? Margrethe Petersen and Philip Shaw. 28:14 July.

A project on the use of English for academic purposes in Denmark has revealed that the academic article written in Danish may be a dying genre. Based on this finding and on observations on the use of English in Danish texts (or contexts), the future of the Danish language and of translation and interpreting between Danish and English is considered.

A Mentor Program for Danish Translators. Else Mogensen. 28:31 July.

In Denmark, a newly launched program financed by the Ministry of Culture makes it possible for less experienced literary translators to apply for financial support in order to receive guidance from seasoned translators.

Danish-to-American English Financial Glossary. Tom West. 28:33 July.

You may find that the translations given here are different from those in your favorite bilingual Danish dictionary.

Of Language, Change, and Endurance. Inger Gilbert. 28:43 Oct.

This article takes issue with "Danish-A Language with a Future?" by Margrethe Petersen and Philip Shaw (ATA Chronicle, Vol XXVIII, No 7, July 1999). While she recognizes the influence of the European Union, the globalization of the marketplace, and the growth of information technologies in terms of their many and varied interfacings with the Danish language, Gilbert reads the overall effect of these influences as contributing to language change and growth. While she sees the possibilities/necessities for Danish/English bilingualism, Gilbert cannot subscribe to the view that the Danish language thereby is "threatened" or in the process of "dying," as Petersen and Shaw argue.

Not Waving, Not Drowning, But Maybe Submerging? Margrethe Petersen and Philip Shaw. 28:46 Oct.

A response to Inger Gilbert's "Of Language, Change, and Endurance."

(FRENCH)

Translating American Computer Books into French: A Case for Adaptation. Elisabeth Lavault. 28:42 Jan.

Translating general public computer books from American into French requires a certain amount of adaptation. Adaptation obviously concerns cultural references, but a more subtle form of adaptation concerns register: a shift of tenor is needed to transform the informal and subjective author-reader relationship prevailing in American books into a more neutral and formal relationship which is more suitable to French culture. This view is made apparent through a study of the linguistic forms used in a corpus of American books and their French translations.

Teaching French>English Translation to Beginning Translators: A Linguistic Approach. Michelle Jones. 28:50 Jan.

To help beginning translators recognize and avoid the major pitfalls of French to English translation and steer away from erroneous word-for-word translation, a linguistic approach is particularly effective. Such an approach emphasizes delineation of translation units or concepts beyond mere words, the realization that words are polysemous, and that the semantic range of a word will not coincide between source and target languages. In addition, this approach will help with the identification of false cognates, the recognition of semantic, structural, and metalinguistic obstacles to literal translation along with the solutions available to counter these problems, and the strategies used by professional translators, such as borrowing, calque, transposition, modulation, equivalence, and adaptation.

Project Analysis for Translators: Real-life Scenarios. Claire Languillat and Mylène Vialard. 28:55 Jan. (see Localization)

Document analysis is an essential, critical building block of the localization pyramid that is too often overlooked. A methodical approach to document analysis in the early phases of translation will go far to ensure the final quality of any project. We will discuss methods of document analysis and the function and role of translator-client dialogue in three increasingly complex real-life scenarios.

Keeping the Lines of Communication Open: Translating French Corporate Newsletters. Chris Durban. 28:60 Jan. (see Business, Client Education)

Corporate newsletters let businesses reach out to overseas clients, prospects, employees, and partners at regular intervals. Not surprisingly, foreign-language versions work best if translators are aware of the big picture and negotiate the room they need to adapt source texts.

Hepatic Hazards in France. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 28:63 Jan.

Outreach: A Taste of Translation. Madeleine Velguth. 28:22 Feb. (see Client Education)

This module can be used as an outreach tool for a variety of audiences wanting to know more about the art and skills involved in translation. The hands-on, English-only activities for individuals or groups illustrate the sensitivity to both language and culture that are needed to bring a text successfully from one language into another.

Sell This: Getting the Message Across in Advertising Translation. Molly Stevens. 28:17 May. (see Localization)

Launching a product and its advertising campaign involves developing an image, creating packaging, and defining a consumer target group. Translating the materials used to invent this product and campaign requires adaptation, cultural placement, and a secure understanding of the product's personality. This article is adapted from the lecture the author gave at Hilton Head. She discusses some of the material she translated for a New York advertising agency concerning a new perfume from an Italian, Paris-based company.

Problems of "Translating" Bi-/Multilingual Literary Texts: The Haitian French of Jacques Stephen Alexis. Carrol F. Coates. 28:14 June. (see Literary)

Reflections in this article are the result of doubts and problems stemming from past (and current) efforts to translate novels in which the fictional discourse involves code mixing of two or more languages or dialects. I am concerned here with the problems of translating a truly bilingual Haitian novel, Compère Général Soleil, which will be published (December 1999) by the University Press of Virginia as General Sun, My Brother. The use of Kreyòl terms for the flora and fauna of Haiti, for Kreyòl proverbs, for references to popular religion (Vodou), and for other areas of knowledge, such as agriculture, is complicated by the fact that there is also a significant amount of discourse in Spanish and, to a lesser extent, even in English. General observations on the translation of a bi- or multilingual literary text will be largely based on my experience with the Alexis translation.

Rethinking Neo-Classical Translation Theory. Julie Candler Hayes. 28:32 June. (see Literary, Linguistic Theory)

Recent historical studies of translation theory have criticized the practice of French and English translators of the "neo-classical school" (late-17th and 18th centuries) for their strongly adaptive,

"ethnocentric" approach to translation. The present article takes issue with such critics, and argues for a more fully contextualized study of what the translators themselves said about their practice. Neo-classical translation needs to be seen in terms of the development of early-modern notions of authorship, originality, language, and culture.

One Hundred and One Poems by Paul Verlaine. A Bilingual Edition. Carrol F. Coats. 28:36 June. (see Literary)

Stylistic Equipoise: Charles Dobzynski as Translator of Yiddish Poetry into French. Albert Waldinger. 28:48 June. (see Literary)

This article discusses Charles Dobzynski as a Yiddish-French translator with an emphasis on his use of French poetic tradition to render a heavily upset language and culture.

Technical Resources for French<>English Translators: A Survey. Eve Lindemuth Bodeux. 28:67 Sept. (see Internet Resources)

Today is an exciting time to be in the translation industry. New technologies facilitate communication with clients and expedite the tasks that make up a translator=s day. This survey will review technical tools that are particularly helpful to those involved with French translation, to or from English, and will cover Internet resources, computer-aided translation tools, and specialized books.

(German)

Translating Foreign Educational Documents (Emphasis on German to American English). Courtney Searls-Ridge. 28:15 March.

When translating diplomas, transcripts, and other educational documents into English we have to make decisions about what to translate, what not to translate, and how to handle foreign equivalencies, near-equivalencies, and non-correspondences. Sometimes insistent clients try to be helpful by telling us what they believe the American equivalent of their degree would be. This article discusses the German educational system from a practical translator's standpoint, and also makes some suggestions for people working in other languages. Further input is welcome.

Spreu und Weizen—Internet Resources for German Translators. Frank Dietz. 28:24 March.

This article describes Internet resources for German translators. Among the areas discussed are newsgroups, glossaries, reference sites, and online magazines.

Some Aspects of Technical Translation into German. Manfred Mondt. 28:26 March.

Most of the technology we are translating today did not exist when we grew up in our native countries. Our native languages have been enriched by new words, many of them from the English language, and we encounter the well-known problem of "false friends," "good friends," and many in between. Over the last few decades most of us learned to think in English and lost the ability to clearly express English concepts in our mother tongues. It is this last group of problems I would like to explore in the following article.

Intercultural Aspects of Translation. Michael Schmitz. 28:51 March. (see Cross-Cultural Issues)

Taking a translation from Slovak to German as an example, the author demonstrates that the translator's disregard for cultural differences can lead to serious misunderstanding. This is particularly true of words and topics in connection with "nation," "race," and "blood," which have distinctly marked political connotations in German.

(Italian)

Italian: Balancing the Spirit in Translation. Else W. Moskowitz. 28:54 June.

For me, the best part of translating Italian is Italian! So I suppose this is, above all, a paean to the Italian language, that collection of mellifluous harmonies that sound just right.

Avoiding False Friends in Technical Translations into Italian. Roberto Crivello. 28:59 June.

Technical translators have few resources to help them meet the challenge of avoiding false friends. Usually the books that address this subject cover terms or expressions more likely to be found in general or literary translations. The false friends that I illustrate in this article are more frequently observed in technical translations.

Translating into Italian Several Key Terms Found in Judgments of Dissolution of Marriage. Marica Pariante Angelides. 28:62 June. (see Legal)

This article will analyze 10 key terms found in judgments of dissolution of marriage, and give a translation into Italian that comes as close as possible to the English term and yet conveys the proper meaning to the final reader (an Italian attorney or judge), who may not necessarily know the English language. It will answer some of the questions that arise in translating such judgments because of the major differences between the common law system used in the U.S. and the civil law system used in Italy.

In zona Cesarini: Problems with the Translation of Sports Metaphors and Terms. Riccardo Schiaffino. 28:66 June.

Many excellent translators may be unsure of what some texts mean when they find them sprinkled with sport colloquialisms—especially when the colloquialisms appear in contexts that have nothing to do with sports.

(Japanese)

Establishing Successful Local Support Groups. Hiro Tsuchiya. 28:40 May.

A discussion of how the Japanese Language Group for Translators in the Chicago area was formed, and the format of its monthly meetings. Tips of how to manage and coordinate such a small group meeting will also be covered.

Techniques for Proofreading Documents from Japanese. Diane Howard. 28:43 May.

Proofreading is an essential part of translating, but translators and agencies are often unclear about exactly what it involves. This article defines the levels of proofreading for translated text and suggests how to adapt proofreading techniques for correcting translations.

Japanese Software Localization: Agendas for the Translators of the Next Generation. Masaki Itagaki and Takashi Kosaka. 28:45 May. (see Localization)

A discussion of Japanese localization with particular emphasis on localization processes from the translator's viewpoint. This article will also examine the emerging role of translators and provide some technical solutions for Japanese translators who have engaged in Japanese (English-to-Japanese) localization.

Haiku Refracted Through Translation. Hiroaki Sato. 28:49 May. (see Literary)

The haiku form has transformed itself into something different through translation, and that, in turn, has affected the Japanese view of this verse form.

Koto and Moto in English<>Japanese Translation. Atsushi Tomii. 28:52 May.

"Koto" functions entirely differently from "mono" in Japanese. "Koto" means "to do (or to be) something" in English, and "mono" means "something" in English. Although the equivalent of either "koto" or "mono" can serve as the subject in any type of sentence in English, and "mono" can be the subject in any type of sentence in Japanese, "koto" cannot be the subject in certain types of sentences in Japanese. The types of sentence structures that contain "koto" as the subject are known as "non-volitional subject" sentence structures.

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Multilingual Translations Project. Sonya L. Eremenco. 28:35 July. (see Medical)

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) Multilingual Translations Project works to adapt the FACIT health-related quality of life questionnaires to other languages for use in research and clinical trials worldwide. This project has developed an innovative iterative translation methodology (forward, backward, and multiple review) to ensure equivalence among the various language versions of the FACIT questionnaires. This article presents an overview of the project, the methodology involved, and the issues that were encountered when testing with patients in Japan.

Transfer and Compensation in Literary Translation—A Case Study from Japanese and Romanian Translation. Niculina Nae. 28:45 Aug. (see Literary)

This article deals with the complex problems of style rendering in literary translation, and attempts to point out a few difficulties the translator can encounter when translating a literary text from Romanian into Japanese. It refers to the importance of considering style when translating, as well as to the specific problems encountered in the process of translating across cultures, where a considerable quantity of implicit information cannot be retrieved.

(Languages of Limited Diffusion)

The Communication Needs of Small Nations. Liisa Fellman-Paul. 28:18 July.

The author theorizes that there are about 20 European states (if the states of the former Yugoslav Republic are included) in which the official languages are not spoken or studied by many foreign nationals. As a result, the nearly 230 million Europeans who reside in these states find it necessary to communicate with the outside world using another language. Owing to a shortage of translators and interpreters who have a mastery of the official languages of any of the "small nations," it frequently rests on the citizens of the states or nations listed in this article to translate or interpret away from their native tongue. This practice is contradictory to the policy adopted by the European Union, and the EU and International Federation of Translators (FIT) ought to recognize this fact in their language policies.

The Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL) Project. Louis Janus. 28:29 July.

The Less Commonly Taught Languages Project seeks to help teachers cooperate and communicate, and encourages good teaching practice through workshops and by offering royalty-free material. The project also maintains a database of LCTL course offerings at North American colleges and universities.

(Mayan)

Vernacular Languages of Guatemala. Mariana Landaverde. 28:56 Oct. (see Spanish)

An overview of the 24 vernacular languages of Guatemala which include 22 Mayan languages, Garífuna, and Xinca. The problems involved in their interpretation, not only within Guatemala, but also abroad, are discussed.

(Portuguese)

Skill, Art, and Science: What Makes a Good Interpreter? Tereza d'Avila Braga. 28:20 Aug. (see Interpreting)

Based on a presentation given during the fifth Annual Spring Meeting of ATA's Portuguese Language Division in New Orleans last May, this article is a summary of research on, and offers reflections about, the business of interpreting from the perspective of a full-time translator and interpreter working with Brazilian Portuguese.

The Translation of Large-volume Projects in Portugal—Case Study: Qualification of Contractors for the Vasco da Gama Bridge. Joao Roque Dias (Translation by J. Henry Phillips). 28:25 Aug.

It seems a shame that, to my knowledge, there is no translation event recorded in The Guinness Book of World Records.

An Interview with Jorge Couto, H.E. (His Excellency) the President of Instituto Camões. Clotilde Mesquita. 28:27 Aug. (see Interviews)

Internet Resources for Portuguese Translators. Marília Painter. 28:29 Aug. (see Internet Resources)

Web resources for the Portuguese<>English translator.

Websites for Portuguese Translators. Stella Hecht. 28:31 Aug. (see Internet Resources)

More Websites of interest to Portuguese translators.

Translating the Law: When the Medium is Not the Message. Enéas Theodoro, Jr. 28:32 Aug. (see Legal)

The article focuses on the inherent difficulty of translating legal documents due to differences between legal systems. What are some of the approaches to legal translation within the context of

U.S.-Brazilian law that can facilitate the translator's work? Some suggestions and explanations regarding Portuguese-English legal terminology and critical points typically encountered by the translator.

Don't Get Trapped: Pitfalls of Translating Idiomatic Expressions. Tony Zahra and Marília Painter. 28:39 Aug.

The effective use of language lies not only in being able to create and understand an infinite number of sentences, but also having the capability to use the appropriate language in a given context. Therefore, idiomatic expressions present an enormous challenge for any translator.

Translators and the Internet. Jussara Simões (Translation by Donna Sandin). 28:41 Aug. (see Internet Resources)

The Internet as a tool for marketing, research, and professional development. How to get the most out of the information superhighway.

Empowerment: When Joe Citizen Gets a Say. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 28:52 Aug.

The notion of "empowerment" has been cropping up with increasing frequency, but what exactly is "to empower" anyway?

The Double Lexicon of English and the Portuguese/English Translator. John B. Jensen. 28:56 Aug.

English has a double lexicon, with parallel terms for thousands of concepts, one Germanic and the other Romance. The article examines this vocabulary in terms of form and meaning, and studies problems of the Portuguese/English translator who must understand the differences and know how to map them onto the primarily Romance vocabulary of Portuguese. This process involves subtle differences of meaning or register, and often produces false cognates. Specific difficulties are studied and suggestions given.

(Russian)

No Beach Vacation...but better than Two Weeks in the Gulag. Laura E. Wolfson. 28:12 April. (see Interpreting)

The Federal Court of the southern district of New York (Manhattan) held a two-week course in January for Russian court interpreters. A participant in the class reports.

From Troy with Love. Christina Sever and Mila Bonnichsen. 28:16 April.

A tale of a journey, from the Bronze Age to the 19th century through World War II to the present, from Turkey to Greece to Germany to Russia, and the great joys and a few sorrows of translating the history and description of the relics of such a fantastic odyssey.

American-Russian-Soviet: Reflections on a Triangle. Steven Shabad. 28:18 April.

An American recalls more of his experiences in Cold-War Moscow (see Chronicle, Vol. XXXVII, No. 4) to illustrate the differences in perspective between Americans and Russians. He takes a look at how these differences were magnified by Soviet ideology and how the influence of American culture, in turn, may have contributed to the collapse of Marxism-Leninism.

Russia: A Moving Target. Kathy Stackhouse and Dmitri Postnikov. 28:20 April.

Two personal views one American and one Russian of the Russian translation market as it has been affected by economics and politics since détente.

Interview with Ye. G. Kovalenko. Jim Walker. 28:27 April. (see Interviews)

Dictionaries are an essential tool of translation. Translators should recognize the tremendous effort that goes into creating them and express their appreciation to lexicographers.

Autotranslation as a Specific Variety of Poetical Transversion. Serghei G. Nikolayev. 28:37 April. (see Literary)

Some bilingual authors, dissatisfied with the quality of the existing translations of their works, resort to literary translation themselves. This results in the phenomenon known as autotranslation. The article analyzes two versions (one in Russian and the other one in English) of the same poem written by a modern Russian poet, Joseph Brodsky, juxtaposing them to each other, collating the linguistic units from the semantic and stylistic standpoints, and revealing the methodology of translation used by Brodsky himself. The article should be of certain interest for both literary critics, literary translation theorists, and those who intend to translate Russian poetry in general, and Brodsky's writings in particular, into English or some other language.

(Scandinavian)

Scandinavian for Reading Knowledge. Louis Janus. 28:26 July.

The author describes the background and current implementation of the course he taught at the University of Minnesota. Students learned to understand texts in Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, the relationships among the languages, and how each language's morphology works.

(Slavic)

Slavic Languages: Some Text Processing Suggestions. Dmitri Postnikov and Kathy Stackhouse. 28:29 April. (see Technology: Problem-solving)

Tips to help translators format MSWord texts that are meant for subsequent desktop publishing. The aim is to minimize formatting work for both the translator and the desktop publishing specialist.

Contemporary Slavic Literature in Translation. Michael Walker. 28:18 June. (see Literary)

Over most of the 20 th century, Slavic and Eastern European literatures have not received a serious amount of attention by readers in the Western European nations and the Americas. Except for the Russian literary giants, notably few translations of 20th century writers working in the Slavic languages have appeared in Western markets. It is hard, if not downright impossible, to set definitive rules for the successful translation of fictional works from the Slavic languages into recipient languages of other genetic families. Sociocultural influence on linguistics and word use is perhaps nowhere presently more apparent than in the Slavic languages, and cultural currents should be examined in relation to specific authors and their works as much as linguistic principles are acknowledged.

(Spanish)

Wish Fulfillment for Legal Translators: Tom West on His New Dictionary. Lillian S. Clementi. 28:31 May. (see Legal, Interviews)

The newly released Dictionary of Law and Business promises to be a dream come true for Spanish legal translators. Compiled and edited by Tom West, an American attorney-turned-translator, with support from practicing translators, it provides U.S.—not British —equivalents for hard-to-find legal and business terms collected from all 20 Spanish-speaking countries. During a recent visit to Washington, DC, West stopped long enough to answer questions about his new dictionary, his plans for a French-English edition, and his approach to legal translation.

My Man. Rosa Montero (translated by Maddalena Finch). 28:21 June. (see Literary)

Narrated by a woman unhappily married for many years, the story sarcastically outlines her relationship. The breakdown in communication, the tediousness of chores, and the memories of a once happier life add to an existing bitterness and resignation.

Translating for the Stage: Getting Past the Title. Phyllis Zatlin. 28:29 June. (see Literary)

Translating plays and getting them staged, or even read, is a challenging task. A good title is a necessary starting point. A problematic title, on the other hand, may reveal much about the difficulties posed by the source text or the translation itself.

The Department of Redundancy Department. Verónica Albin. 28:50 July.

With the pressures of deadlines, redundancies often go unnoticed by writers, editors, and translators. This article includes some of the most common pitfalls in Spanish and English.

Translating Abbreviations from Technical Texts into English. Daniel Linder. 28:53 Sept. (see Localization)

The proper translation of abbreviations in technical texts is fundamental to technical communication across cultures and languages. When translating from English, all abbreviations will be in English, but when translating into English, abbreviations in source texts may stand for terms in English or in the foreign language. Translators into English should be very wary, because non-translation of these source-language abbreviations will lead to a breakdown in communication.

The Role of Translation in Advertising for the U.S. Hispanic Market: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Kirk Anderson. 28:50 Oct.

High quality advertising for the U.S. Hispanic market has been a long time coming, but with the recognition of the economic importance of our country's fastest growing market, advertisers on national and local levels are stepping up their efforts to address this market with the quality of communication it deserves. Despite advertisers' traditional distrust of translation, our profession is playing an increasingly important role in this process. This article will survey the current status of advertising for the U.S. Hispanic market and will consider the role translators play in its rapid development.

Translating Neologisms in Spanish Technical Texts. Daniel Linder. 28:54 Oct.

English is not the only language dynamic enough to be used as a vehicle for technical communication. In fact, Spanish has an enormous tendency to create neologisms that English would never allow, for example, by using prefixes such as "tele-." I want to help other translators appreciate this dynamic tendency in Spanish, and also discuss how to deal with these neologisms when they crop up in Spanish technical source texts.

Vernacular Languages of Guatemala. Mariana Landaverde. 28:56 Oct.

An overview of the 24 vernacular languages of Guatemala which include 22 Mayan languages, Garífuna, and Xinca. The problems involved in their interpretation, not only within Guatemala, but also abroad, are discussed.

Ticklish Prepositions. Sandra Smallwood-Beltrán. 28:58 Oct.

"...due to the influence of bad translations, phrases with incorrect use of prepositions are seen..." Watch the treacherous traps: refresh your skills.

Talking With Andre Moskowitz. Kirk Anderson and Andre Moskowitz. 28:61 Oct. (see Interviews)

Kirk Anderson, former president of the Florida Chapter of ATA, interviews Andre Moskowitz, the assistant administrator of ATA's Spanish Language Division, and asks him about his background and his views on the Spanish language, the field of translation and interpreting, T&I training, and his interest in the study of Spanish dialects.

The New Multicultural Spanish Dictionary: Its Raison d'etre and its Uses (as Seen by a Translation Agency). Mordecai Schreiber. 28:64 Oct. (see Reviews)

The new Multicultural Spanish Dictionary, published by Schreiber Publishing, is the answer to a long-felt need shared by many Spanish translators: a quick reference tool that helps navigate through the different variants of everyday words throughout the Spanish-speaking world. The experience of the Schreiber translation agency bears this out.

Translation Studies and Higher Education: The Case of Spain. María Barros. 28:34 Nov./Dec. (see Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

In the last decade, the Spanish academic community has shown an extraordinary interest in translation. Such interest is reflected in the ever-increasing number of universities that offer translation degrees, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels, in an attempt to meet the growing demand for university-trained professionals in this field. This article provides an overview of the translation programs available at universities in Spain and examines the causes of this unusual situation and the possible consequences for the labor market.

LANGUAGE SERVICES: SUPPLY AND DEMAND

ATA Publishes Translation and Interpretation Services Survey. 28:20 Oct.

The Public and Private Sectors and National Strategic Planning for Language in the U.S. William P. Rivers. 28:28 Oct.

Fueled by sweeping changes in the world's economy and geopolitics, the past 15 years have seen increased demands for language capability in the economic, political, and social spheres in the United States. Meeting the nation's language needs requires strategic planning and articulation among language consumers and the language providers of the private, government, heritage, and academic sectors. Areas for articulation and collaboration include the development of standards, research, and consumer education.

An Army Perspective on National Language Needs and Capabilities. Ray Lane Aldrich. 28:31 Oct.

The Army has a large reserve of linguists and linguist requirements, but there is room and a real need for civilian linguists.

Interpreter Training Challenges in the 21st Century. Inge Urbancic. 28:20 Nov./Dec. (see Interpreting, Translator/Interpreter Training and Pedagogy)

In the age of rapid immigration to the U.S. and globalization of business, the demand for language services, especially the need for interpreters and translators, has grown exponentially. The challenge of conducting non-language-specific training programs, especially in exotic languages and in remote locations, faces us at the brink of the next century. This article will discuss one program's effort to create and conduct effective interpreter training programs in the face of these challenges.

Legal

Appellate Court Decisions Involving Interpreter-related Issues. Virginia Benmaman. 28:30 March. (see Interpreting)

An investigation of interpreter-related issues raised on appeal and subsequent appellate court rulings has provided much interesting and relevant information. An overview is presented of historical precedents, the perspective generally held by appellate courts toward trial court discretion and rulings, and the standards of review applied to appellate cases. Examples of issues raised on appeal, and cases citing these issues, as well as the appellate decisions in these cases are presented.

More than Meets the Eye: Hidden Meanings in Legal English. Tom West. 28:38 March.

This article discusses U.S. legal terminology with unexpected meanings, and explains how the terms will have to be rendered before they are translated into other languages.

Use and Interpretation of Discourse Markers in a Bilingual Courtroom. Azucena C. Rigney. 28:40 March. (see Interpreting)

A discussion of the use and translation of discourse markers (e.g., "well," "all right," "I mean," "you know," etc.) in the English/Spanish bilingual courtroom. These particles, which have zero lexical meaning but full pragmatic significance, are a challenge to interpreters who must render everything that is said in court without alterations of any kind. This article will show how the interpretation of discourse markers is guided by criteria of cross-linguistic equivalence, structural needs, and difficulties in language processing.

Wish Fulfillment for Legal Translators: Tom West on His New Dictionary. Lillian S. Clementi. 28:31 May. (see Interviews, Spanish)

The newly released Dictionary of Law and Business promises to be a dream come true for Spanish legal translators. Compiled and edited by Tom West, an American attorney-turned-translator, with support from practicing translators, it provides U.S.—not British—equivalents for hard-to-find legal and business terms collected from all 20 Spanish-speaking countries. During a recent visit to Washington, DC, West stopped long enough to answer questions about his new dictionary, his plans for a French-English edition, and his approach to legal translation.

Translating into Italian Several Key Terms Found in Judgments of Dissolution of Marriage. Marica Pariante Angelides. 28:62 June. (see Italian)

This article will analyze 10 key terms found in judgments of dissolution of marriage, and give a translation into Italian that comes as close as possible to the English term and yet conveys the proper meaning to the final reader (an Italian attorney or judge), who may not necessarily know the English language. It will answer some of the questions that arise in translating such judgments because of the major differences between the common law system used in the U.S. and the civil law system used in Italy.

Translating the Law: When the Medium is Not the Message. Enéas Theodoro, Jr. 28:32 Aug. (see Portuguese)

The article focuses on the inherent difficulty of translating legal documents due to differences between legal systems. What are some of the approaches to legal translation within the context of U.S.-Brazilian law that can facilitate the translator's work? Some suggestions and explanations regarding Portuguese-English legal terminology and critical points typically encountered by the translator.

LINGUISTIC THEORY

Translation Practice: Between Theoretical and Technical. Elena Levintova. 28:34 April.

A model is suggested for describing the practice of translation. Its purpose is to find a place for the already existing translation studies, resolve the seeming contradictions among them, and outline other possible areas of research.

Rethinking Neo-Classical Translation Theory. Julie Candler Hayes. 28:32 June. (see Literary, French)

Recent historical studies of translation theory have criticized the practice of French and English translators of the "neo-classical school" (late-17th and 18th centuries) for their strongly adaptive,

"ethnocentric" approach to translation. The present article takes issue with such critics, and argues for a more fully contextualized study of what the translators themselves said about their practice. Neo-classical translation needs to be seen in terms of the development of early-modern notions of authorship, originality, language, and culture.

Bilingualism in Children. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 28:51 July.

Should children learning to talk be exposed to two languages at once?

LITERARY

Peter Cole, Translator of Selected Poems of Shmuel HaNagid to Receive Modern Language Association's Scaglione Prize for Translation of a Literary Work. 28:16 Feb.

The Modern Language Association of America awarded its third Aldo and Jeanne Scaglione Prize for an Outstanding Translation of a Literary Work to Peter Cole, translator of Selected Poems of Shmuel HaNagid, published by Princeton University Press.

Translation and Copyright. Michael Trittipo. 28:27 Jan. (see Copyright)

Although translations should be sense-for-sense, not word-for-word, they are nonetheless a kind of copy. U.S. copyright law expressly brings translations within its scope. It defines when a translation can be made or ordered, and who owns or can do what with a translation when it is done and delivered.

Intellectual Property Rights and Terminology Management. Sue Ellen Wright. 28:32 Jan. (see Copyright)

The extent to which terminological information is covered by existing national copyright laws and international conventions is open to question. Creators of terminological databases traditionally represent both sides of the copyright equation in that they function both as users of copyrighted information and as creators of potentially copyrightable compilations. This article attempts to define the scope of copyright concerns as they affect terminological data and explores the effect that changing attitudes and capabilities on the Internet may have on the relationship between terminological data and copyright in electronic environments. In addition to examining aspects of the U.S. copyright law that may be applicable to terminological databases, ownership rights to terminological data are discussed. The creation of the new European sui generis right governing otherwise non-copyrightable electronic data is introduced, along with a brief view of related debates that are taking place in the U.S. within the framework of the government's Information Infrastructure Task Force. Finally, the role of international standardization in facilitating user-friendly recording and billing procedures with respect to proprietary online dictionaries is discussed.

A Brief History of Czech Literary Translating. Jiri Stejskal. 28:23 April.

This article outlines the development of literary translation in Czech lands from the Middle Ages to World War II, from the word-for-word translations of canonical texts through the aberrations of the Revivalists, to the sophisticated modern translations of Vrchlický, Sládek, and Fischer.

Autotranslation as a Specific Variety of Poetical Transversion. Serghei G. Nikolayev. 28:37 April. (see Russian)

Some bilingual authors, dissatisfied with the quality of the existing translations of their works, resort to literary translation themselves. This results in the phenomenon known as autotranslation. The article analyzes two versions (one in Russian and the other one in English) of the same poem written by a modern Russian poet, Joseph Brodsky, juxtaposing them to each other, collating the linguistic units from the semantic and stylistic standpoints, and revealing the methodology of translation used by Brodsky himself. The article should be of certain interest for both literary critics, literary translation theorists, and those who intend to translate Russian poetry in general, and Brodsky's writings in particular, into English or some other language.

Haiku Refracted Through Translation. Hiroaki Sato. 28:49 May. (see Japanese)

The haiku form has transformed itself into something different through translation, and that, in turn, has affected the Japanese view of this verse form.

Review of Marv Rubinstein's 21 st Century American English Compendium. Yuko Kashiwagi. 28:55 May. (see Reviews)

You do not "read" a dictionary. Right? Marv Rubinstein's 21st Century American English Compendium, A Portable Guidebook for Translators, Interpreters, Writers, Editors, and Advanced Language Students is an exception. You can, of course, "use" this reference work in the traditional manner, but you will probably also enjoy "reading" it. If you read it in public, be prepared to have people stare at you. Laughing while reading a dictionary is not a common sight.

American Literary Translators Association. Lynn Hoggard. 28:12 June.

The American Literary Translators Association is devoted to all aspects of literary translation. It holds annual meetings, publishes a newsletter and journal (Translation Review), and presents the National Translation Award each year for the best literary translation in the U.S.

Problems of "Translating" Bi-/Multilingual Literary Texts: The Haitian French of Jacques Stephen Alexis. Carrol F. Coates. 28:14 June. (see French)

Reflections in this article are the result of doubts and problems stemming from past (and current) efforts to translate novels in which the fictional discourse involves code mixing of two or more languages or dialects. I am concerned here with the problems of translating a truly bilingual Haitian novel, Compère Général Soleil, which will be published (December 1999) by the University Press of Virginia as General Sun, My Brother. The use of Kreyòl terms for the flora and fauna of Haiti, for Kreyòl proverbs, for references to popular religion (Vodou), and for other areas of knowledge, such as agriculture, is complicated by the fact that there is also a significant amount of discourse in Spanish and, to a lesser extent, even in English. General observations on the translation of a bi- or multilingual literary text will be largely based on my experience with the Alexis translation.

Contemporary Slavic Literature in Translation. Michael Walker. 28:18 June. (see Slavic Languages)

Over most of the 20 th century, Slavic and Eastern European literatures have not received a serious amount of attention by readers in the Western European nations and the Americas. Except for the Russian literary giants, notably few translations of 20th century writers working in the Slavic languages have appeared in Western markets. It is hard, if not downright impossible, to set definitive rules for the successful translation of fictional works from the Slavic languages into recipient languages of other genetic families. Sociocultural influence on linguistics and word use is perhaps nowhere presently more apparent than in the Slavic languages, and cultural currents should be examined in relation to specific authors and their works as much as linguistic principles are acknowledged.

My Man. Rosa Montero (translated by Maddalena Finch). 28:21 June. (see Spanish)

Narrated by a woman unhappily married for many years, the story sarcastically outlines her relationship. The breakdown in communication, the tediousness of chores, and the memories of a once happier life add to an existing bitterness and resignation.

Almost Paradise. Camilla Bozzoli. 28:23 June.

What makes Paradise? The music of celestial spheres and the presence of the heavenly host? Hardly! There is another Paradise, a Paradise on Earth, or Elysium, as it was evoked in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Yet, the line between Heaven and Hell is thin, and one is not always ready to take Paradise in all its perfection. Some may prefer the daily charm of an orderly existence: it may even include a cat or a dog...but it is always conditioned by culture.

What's in an Opera? Wouldn't a Translation Sound as Sweet? Catherine Nisato. 28:26 June.

Examines the dilemma of operatic translation. Should opera be translated, and if so, how?

Translating for the Stage: Getting Past the Title. Phyllis Zatlin. 28:29 June. (see Spanish)

Translating plays and getting them staged, or even read, is a challenging task. A good title is a necessary starting point. A problematic title, on the other hand, may reveal much about the difficulties posed by the source text or the translation itself.

Rethinking Neo-Classical Translation Theory. Julie Candler Hayes. 28:32 June. (see French, Linguistic Theory)

Recent historical studies of translation theory have criticized the practice of French and English translators of the "neo-classical school" (late-17th and 18th centuries) for their strongly adaptive,

"ethnocentric" approach to translation. The present article takes issue with such critics, and argues for a more fully contextualized study of what the translators themselves said about their practice. Neo-classical translation needs to be seen in terms of the development of early-modern notions of authorship, originality, language, and culture.

One Hundred and One Poems by Paul Verlaine. A Bilingual Edition. Carrol F. Coats. 28:36 June. (see French)

Don't Call Me Nègre, Toubab: Humanism vs. Political Correctness as a Guiding Principle in the Translation of an African Novel/Round 2. Nidra Poller. 28:38 June.

Is African literature to be reduced to its politico-ethnological expository role? Should a literary translator bowdlerize a great African novel to satisfy the momentary dictates of political correctness? An experienced literary translator begs to disagree with Jean Ouédraogo's analysis (May 1998 Chronicle) of her translation of Ahmadou Kourouma's Monnè, outrages et défis.

Rescuing the Human in Poller's Humanism. Jean Ouédraogo. 28:44 June.

Is political correctness the enemy of humanism? Can we as translators validate the rendering of the French word "nègre" by "nigger" as a victory of humanism over the evils of political correctness? A response to Nidra Poller's: "Don't Call Me Nègre, Toubab: Humanism vs. Political Correctness as a Guiding Principle in the Translation of an African Novel/Round 2."

Stylistic Equipoise: Charles Dobzynski as Translator of Yiddish Poetry into French. Albert Waldinger. 28:48 June. (see French)

This article discusses Charles Dobzynski as a Yiddish-French translator with an emphasis on his use of French poetic tradition to render a heavily upset language and culture.

Transfer and Compensation in Literary Translation—A Case Study from Japanese and Romanian Translation. Niculina Nae. 28:45 Aug. (see Japanese)

This article deals with the complex problems of style rendering in literary translation, and attempts to point out a few difficulties the translator can encounter when translating a literary text from Romanian into Japanese. It refers to the importance of considering style when translating, as well as to the specific problems encountered in the process of translating across cultures, where a considerable quantity of implicit information cannot be retrieved.

A Short History of the Chinese Writing System. Richard Altwarg. 28:29 Sept. (see Chinese)

An outline of the history of the Chinese writing system, tracing the development from its origins in the second millennium BC to the present day. Examples of the main script systems and their appearance are given.

LOCALIZATION

Project Analysis for Translators: Real-life Scenarios. Claire Languillat and Mylène Vialard. 28:55 Jan.

Document analysis is an essential, critical building block of the localization pyramid that is too often overlooked. A methodical approach to document analysis in the early phases of translation will go far to ensure the final quality of any project. We will discuss methods of document analysis and the function and role of translator-client dialogue in three increasingly complex real-life scenarios.

Re-Evaluating Client Education. Julian Kilker. 28:26 Feb. (see Client Education)

Good education involves exchanging information between the localization contractor and the client in a positive manner and at little additional cost to either party. Major tactics include: a) using every stage of client contact, from proposal to project evaluation, as an opportunity to educate and learn; b) emphasizing clear, goal-oriented communication; and c) seeking out and maintaining quality information resources. This article uses real-life examples to demonstrate typical successes and pitfalls in client education. It suggests a different attitude towards client education which emphasizes that the localization contractor and the client both learn during a project.

Translation as a Function of the Human Mind. Zuzana Kulhánková. 28:39 Feb.

Language is a rendition of our thoughts into words and sentences. We do not think in words, but in concepts or ideas. We do not feel in words, but in emotions. The smallest unit of translation is therefore not a word, but an idea, an image, and an emotion. Translation crosses boundaries of time as well as those of culture. The human mind exists within the boundaries of time and culture. Although the world is becoming smaller, cultural differences are very strong and we need to be humble about the limitations of translation.

Sell This: Getting the Message Across in Advertising Translation. Molly Stevens. 28:17 May. (see French)

Launching a product and its advertising campaign involves developing an image, creating packaging, and defining a consumer target group. Translating the materials used to invent this product and campaign requires adaptation, cultural placement, and a secure understanding of the product's personality. This article is adapted from the lecture the author gave at Hilton Head. She discusses some of the material she translated for a New York advertising agency concerning a new perfume from an Italian, Paris-based company.

Japanese Software Localization: Agendas for the Translators of the Next Generation. Masaki Itagaki and Takashi Kosaka. 28:45 May. (see Japanese)

A discussion of Japanese localization with particular emphasis on localization processes from the translator's viewpoint. This article will also examine the emerging role of translators and provide some technical solutions for Japanese translators who have engaged in Japanese (English-to-Japanese) localization.

The Rise of the Localization Industry. Michael Anobile, 28:51 June. (see Business)

Localisation Industry Standards Association Managing Director Michael Anobile comments on the content and scope of the product localization and language service industry's impact on international business. He explains why localization is the global business imperative of the 21st century.

LISA Plans to En-LEIT-en Localization Trainers. Sue Ellen Wright. 28:18 Aug.

Newcomers to the localization field who graduate with degrees in computer science, technical writing, and translation have, in many cases, not been exposed to key skills that are critical to their futures in internationalization and localization. Those few who are trained appropriately are snapped up almost immediately—which is great for graduates, but discouraging for potential employers. In an effort to address these training gaps, the LISA Education Initiative Taskforce will hold its first "Training the Trainers" workshop September 19 and 20 at the Doubletree Hotel in Monterey, California. The target audience for the workshop will include potential "trainers" planning to develop their own localization training programs who wish to get an overview of existing programs and approaches being adopted, either in industry or in academic settings.

Chinese Transliterations. Jessie Lu. 28:43 Sept. (see Chinese)

New product and company names appear daily in commercial English-to-Chinese translations. A well-designed Chinese transliteration often becomes critical when marketing a product and building a company's image in the Chinese market. Therefore, transliteration has emerged as an important issue in contemporary translation. The purpose of this article is to suggest basic elements that need to be considered in English-to-Chinese transliteration and to provide some examples for discussion.

Translating Abbreviations from Technical Texts into English. Daniel Linder. 28:53 Sept. (see Spanish)

The proper translation of abbreviations in technical texts is fundamental to technical communication across cultures and languages. When translating from English, all abbreviations will be in English, but when translating into English, abbreviations in source texts may stand for terms in English or in the foreign language. Translators into English should be very wary, because non-translation of these source-language abbreviations will lead to a breakdown in communication.

Beyond PacMan: Translating for the Computer Game Industry. Frank Dietz. 28:57 Sept. (see Technology: General)

The multi-billion dollar computer game industry offers numerous opportunities to translators. This article will discuss the type of work associated with translating computer games, its challenges, and rewards.

International English: Making a Case for Efficient and Clear Communication. Jody Byrne. 28:37 Oct.

This article examines the current climate for translation and the new and expanding market presented by globalization and the Internet. It discusses the need for a clear and concise form of English as a means of communicating information to both native and non-native speakers of English. It looks at areas where streamlined, "International English" is useful, and presents a number of ways of achieving this through style, grammar, and syntactic recommendations.

MEDICAL

Certifying Medical Interpreters. Cynthia Roat. 28:23 May. (see Interpreting)

Certification of medical and social service interpreters has been in place in Washington State since 1992. This article describes the medical certification process; analyzes interesting patterns in the attempt rates, pass rates, and recidivism rates; and proposes some suggestions related to certifying medical interpreters.

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Multilingual Translations Project. Sonya L. Eremenco. 28:35 July. (see Japanese)

The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) Multilingual Translations Project works to adapt the FACIT health-related quality of life questionnaires to other languages for use in research and clinical trials worldwide. This project has developed an innovative iterative translation methodology (forward, backward, and multiple review) to ensure equivalence among the various language versions of the FACIT questionnaires. This article presents an overview of the project, the methodology involved, and the issues that were encountered when testing with patients in Japan.

Quality Translation—When Does a Freelancer Stop to Eat? Leon McMorrow. 28:42 July.

If translation quality is as hard to catch and hold as a greasy pig, then you better cook up some solutions. Like, know the ingredients.

Cognitive and Discourse Constraints in Simultaneous Interpretation. Edson J. M. Lopes. 28:45 July. (see Interpreting)

This article examines some constraints that affect interpreters' performance and analyzes some research conducted in order to identify and cope with such interference. It suggests further investigation on the subject.

Beginning in Microbiology. Denzel L. Dyer. 28:55 Sept.

A brief introduction to microbiology, with comments on a few special problems for translators.

The Restoration of a Language: Belorusian in Medical Discourse. Michael Walker. 28:58 Nov./Dec.

This article presents an informal examination and review of qualitative sociolinguistic aspects of the restoration of Belorusian to contemporary usage. Drawing from the author's experience in co-authoring a biomedical research study regarding infection control in the former Soviet Union, it investigates the duality between the political and social desire to restore Belorusian, in place of Russian, as the national language of Belarus and the pragmatic need for a functional, modern language in professional discourse. Both applied and sociocultural aspects of this re-integration are addressed. The theoretical background behind linguistic nationalism in the former Soviet Republics is briefly covered, allowing both a practical and conceptual understanding of the processes of language transformation at work in Belarus and other former Soviet Republics and satellite states.

OPINION/EDITORIAL

Another Great ATA Conference—A Very Personal View. Marian Greenfield. 28:14 Jan.

RESOURCES

Some Comments on Recently Acquired and Visited Translation Aids. Anne Catesby Jones. 28:50 Feb.

REVIEWS (BOOKS)

Review of Marv Rubinstein's 21st Century American English Compendium. Yuko Kashiwagi. 28:55 May. (see Literary)

You do not "read" a dictionary. Right? Marv Rubinstein's 21st Century American English Compendium, A Portable Guidebook for Translators, Interpreters, Writers, Editors, and Advanced Language Students is an exception. You can, of course, "use" this reference work in the traditional manner, but you will probably also enjoy "reading" it. One caution if you read it in public, be prepared to have people stare at you. Laughing while reading a dictionary is not a common sight.

The New Multicultural Spanish Dictionary: Its Raison d'etre and its Uses (as Seen by a Translation Agency). Mordecai Schreiber. 28:64 Oct. (see Spanish)

The new Multicultural Spanish Dictionary, published by Schreiber Publishing, is the answer to a long-felt need shared by many Spanish translators: a quick reference tool that helps navigate through the different variants of everyday words throughout the Spanish-speaking world. The experience of the Schreiber translation agency bears this out.

SIGHT TRANSLATION

The Role of Reading Sight Translation. Claudia Angelelli. 28:27 May.

Sight translation (ST) is a highly complex act of information processing. The type of reader, the reading strategies, and the type of text confronting the reader (among other factors) will have an impact on the quality of the ST a student can render. The purpose of this article is to reveal some of the complexities involved in ST and, in doing that, to question some of the assumptions that have been made in the teaching of ST.

TECHNOLOGY

(General)

Beyond PacMan: Translating for the Computer Game Industry. Frank Dietz. 28:57 Sept. (see Localization)

The multi-billion dollar computer game industry offers numerous opportunities to translators. This article will discuss the type of work associated with translating computer games, its challenges, and rewards.

(Internet Resources)

Internet Search Strategies for Translators. Manon Bergeron and Susan Larsson. 28:22 July.

While we are all aware that the Internet offers a wealth of information, many see it as being in a state of blissful chaos. Because the Internet is an invaluable tool for translators and terminologists, it is essential for these professionals to learn to use it efficiently. There are various important elements that comprise a successful Web search: knowing which tools are available, understanding how to use them, the ability to quickly evaluate the quality and relevance of data found, and efficient bookmark management. In addition, by mastering a few special techniques, you will be able to locate just the term you need.

Internet Resources for Portuguese Translators. Marília Painter. 28:29 Aug. (see Portuguese)

Web resources for the Portuguese<>English translator.

Websites for Portuguese Translators. Stella Hecht. 28:31 Aug. (see Portuguese)

More Websites of interest to Portuguese translators.

Translators and the Internet. Jussara Simões (Translation by Donna Sandin). 28:41 Aug. (see Portuguese)

The Internet as a tool for marketing, research, and professional development. How to get the most out of the information superhighway.

The Translation Portal: The Next Technology Revolution in the Translation Industry. Alex Pressman. 28:71 Sept.

The Internet translation portal is transforming the translation industry with a business model that differs fundamentally from that of the Internet-based traditional translation house. By offering an open community and marketplace where clients and vendors can find each other and work together, as well as scalable translation management technology, the translation portal signals a paradigm shift in how the companies of tomorrow will select and work with their translation vendors.

Technical Resources for French<>English Translators: A Survey. Eve Lindemuth Bodeux. 28:67 Sept. (see French)

Today is an exciting time to be in the translation industry. New technologies facilitate communication with clients and expedite the tasks that make up a translator=s day. This survey will review technical tools that are particularly helpful to those involved with French translation, to or from English, and will cover Internet resources, computer-aided translation tools, and specialized books.

Evolving Internet Strategies—Working the Web. Susan Rials. 28:60 Sept.

This article addresses Web search strategies that can be useful to the working translator. Further specifics will be offered in a seminar at the ATA Annual Conference in St. Louis.

Webvertising That Works: Tips for Effective Web Marketing. Björn Austraat. 28:64 Sept.

"I built a Website, but nobody is visiting it@..."One simple bulk e-mailing got me kicked out of my Web hosting service and e-mail provider." These are just some of the problems Webvertising newcomers face every day. Find solutions and effective Web marketing tips here.

(Machine Translation)

Subject: Machine Translation—Constraints and Prospects. Amar Almasude and Lloyd Hutchings. 28:46 April.

Recent developments in microcomputer technology have produced several machine translation systems. However, machine translations are still considered inadequate, even useless. What are the problems? Will there ever be a reliable machine translation? The authors explore various aspects of language translation, including lexical, syntactic and semantic manipulation, and semiotic and cultural barriers.

Machine Translation: Free at Last. Robert Bononno. 28:52 April.

Machine translation has been under development for nearly 50 years. Recently, Thomson & Thomson, one of the world's leading trademark search organizations, began offering free MT services to its clients. In spite of its shortcomings, the Thomson & Thomson application is typical of the kind of "constrained environment" for which machine translation is most suitable.

(Problem-Solving)

Slavic Languages: Some Text Processing Suggestions. Dmitri Postnikov and Kathy Stackhouse. 28:29 April. (see Slavic Languages)

Tips to help translators format MSWord texts that are meant for subsequent desktop publishing. The aim is to minimize formatting work for both the translator and the desktop publishing specialist.

Obtaining Non-English Letters and Other Characters in WordPerfect. Mark Herman. 28:44 April.

Creating character substitution macros in WordPerfect.

Is There Life after Computers? Konstantin Lakshin. 28:49 April.

It seems that translators are more exposed to software incompatibility problems than most people in the monolingual office environment. The purpose of this article is to revisit a few basic principles that greatly reduce the risk of losing time, clients, and money to glitches in multilingual support and software incompatibilities, and to outline practical approaches to resolving them.

(Software Reviews)

Tools Review "DejaVu" (From a Translator's View). Peter Kjeldson. 28:64 Jan.

Customer Pro-File v. 1.3 Translator/Interpreter Edition for PC and Macintosh Computers. Alicia Gordon. 28:42 April.

Customer Pro-File, a home office database, is designed for, and with input from, interpreters and translators. Features include invoicing, a complete report generator (A/R by month and customer, billings by month and customer, and statements and overdue statements to name a few), a glossary, a business expense tracker, and more.

Using PostScript to Deliver Chinese Language Translations Electronically. Jim Ingram and Elizabeth A. Tu. 28:50 Sept. (see Chinese)

A description of how PostScript and other widely available software can be used to provide useful solutions to the problems faced by Chinese-language translators when working with Western clients who have little incentive to develop and support Chinese-language computing environments.

(Telecommuting)

Taking it on the Road. Wendy Griswold. 28:35 May.

A translator can work wherever there's a modem, right? Well, pretty much, but it takes a lot of planning. Here are the basics.

TERMINOLOGY

Fight the Fog: Use Plain Language. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 28:54 May.

Nobody likes unclear writing, but what can you do about it?

Adolescents Abroad. Charles M. Stacy. 28:54 Aug.

In "Adolescents Abroad," Stacy examines what often happens when words are adopted and adapted from one language to another: unexpected pronunciations, shifts of stress, metamorphosis of meaning, new plural endings, stripped diacritics, gender dislocation, and other linguistic intrigues.

Do Daylight "Savings" Go into a Bank? Emilio Bernal Labrada. 28:68 Oct.

Should you open a bank account for daylight savings?

The Disgruntled Lexicographer: We Linguists Just Can't Get No Respect. Alexandra Russell-Bitting. 28:62 Nov./Dec.

Ever feel like that lack of appreciation is pushing you over the edge?

TRANSLATOR/INTERPRETER TRAINING AND PEDAGOGY

Some Hints to Help Beginners in the Professional Business World. Natascha Ostroumoff. 28:18 Nov./Dec.

When the word "professional" is applied to a person working in any branch of industry or service, it usually means that they have the special skills required to do a quality job in their field. The word also carries with it a series of attributes which extend beyond work-related experience, covering such traits as general demeanor and even one's appearance.

Interpreter Training Challenges in the 21st Century. Inge Urbancic. 28:20 Nov./Dec. (see Interpreting, Language Services: Supply and Demand)

In the age of rapid immigration to the U.S. and globalization of business, the demand for language services, especially the need for interpreters and translators, has grown exponentially. The challenge of conducting non-language-specific training programs, especially in exotic languages and in remote locations, faces us at the brink of the next century. This article will discuss one program's effort to create and conduct effective interpreter training programs in the face of these challenges.

Professional Standards vis-a-vis Institutional Diversity. Marilyn Gaddis Rose. 28:26 Nov./Dec.

All of us agree that students need more language study than they are usually willing to enroll in. We agree that the insufficiency of language study puts the U.S. in a vulnerable position culturally, economically, diplomatically, and even, regrettably, militarily. We agree that this insufficiency also results in a population which is intellectually impoverished from being functionally restricted to a single language. As translators, we agree that we have a burning cause: we must fill in the breach and make sure we prepare those who will carry on after us. And, of course, we agree that translators cannot make mistakes. But aside from dumb mistakes and signs of ignorance, we do not agree on what a mistake is. So, it is no wonder that we show considerable, sometimes alarming, divergence of opinion on what we should take up with students. I argue that we want students to have the judgment and concomitant skills to transfer meaning and affect from one language to another, one culture to another, and one discipline to another. This may well involve less language drill and more information retrieval drill, but, above all, systematic and individualized immersions in the areas of translation.

A "Personal" Touch to Interpreter Training. Claudia Monacelli. 28:29 Nov./Dec.

It goes without saying that if students are to learn anything at all, they ultimately have to do the learning for themselves. But what does this mean for teachers of interpreting? This article reports on interpreter training which uses self-monitoring techniques adapted from the teaching of writing skills.

Translation Studies and Higher Education: The Case of Spain. María Barros. 28:34 Nov./Dec. (see Spanish)

In the last decade, the Spanish academic community has shown an extraordinary interest in translation. Such interest is reflected in the ever-increasing number of universities that offer translation degrees, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels, in an attempt to meet the growing demand for university-trained professionals in this field. This article provides an overview of the translation programs available at universities in Spain and examines the causes of this unusual situation and the possible consequences for the labor market.

What? Teach Translation? María-Luisa Arias-Moreno. 28:38 Nov./Dec.

Translation training is usually done haphazardly by translators without pedagogical studies. The result: no methodology is used to teach translation; the content usually lacks gradation and a sensible sequence; there is no consensus about the basic knowledge in each field that should be transmitted; no systematization of the structures to be mastered; and no adequate teaching techniques are used to make the learning easier. This article is a reflection based on the author's personal experience, both as a student and teacher/translator, about what should be taught, and how, in a translators' training program.

Promoting Good Writing Skills for Translation Students. Judith Leng Lawrence. 28:45 Nov./Dec.

To become a competent translator, one needs not only a command of the source and target language and culture, but also a command of the written discourse of both languages. Yet, how many translator-training programs actually focus on teaching writing skills? This article describes a course offered at the Monterey Institute of International Studies called Advanced English Discourse. It aims to expose students to a variety of discourse genres while focusing on exercises designed to promote greater written competence and versatility in the second/acquired language. Exercises for developing sound reading strategies, summary writing, and paraphrasing will be described as a means to promote greater text analysis skills and written competence.

Editing Strategies for the Translation Classroom. Judith Leng Lawrence and Robert Kohls. 28:52 Nov./Dec.

Many students are in the habit of relying on their teachers to find and fix their errors. Yet how many of us have had the experience of spending hours editing a student's translation only to watch her type our corrections and throw the edited copy away? When we receive the next translation, the same errors inevitably reappear. Simply said, no learning has occurred with this overt correction. We believe that the best way to help students understand, recognize, anticipate, and correct the errors they make is to involve them more directly in the editing process. This article describes a 16-week course at the Monterey Institute of International Studies which focuses on teaching final-stage editing skills as part of improving students' overall translation process.

MONTHLY COLUMNS

(Dictionaries Reviews Compiled by Albert Bork)

For complete reviews of dictionaries published in 1999, please click on the Chronicle page option (located on the sidebar) and select Dictionary Reviews from the main menu listings.

ATA Scholarly Monograph Series

The Changing Scene in World Languages: Issues and Challenges

(ATA Scholarly Monograph Series, Volume IX)

Editor: Marian B. Labrum. Publisher: John Benjamins, Amsterdam. Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 1-55619-628-8 (U.S.); 90- 272-3184-2 (Europe). Price: $30 for ATA members, $75 for nonmembers. Prepayment is required for individuals. (Checks should be payable to John Benjamins Publishing Company.) Corporations will be invoiced. Orders should be sent to: John Benjamins Publishing Company, P.O. Box 27519, Philadelphia, PA 19118-0519; (800)562-5666. Reviewed by: Fritz Hensey. 28:59 May.

Danish

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science & Techniques

(Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish)

Author: Sliosberg, A. Publisher: Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1980. Price: Two volumes, $200 each. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dutch

International Dictionary of the Leather and Allied Trades

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Author: Freudenberg, Walter. Publisher: Springer-Verlag, New York. Publication date: 1968. Price: $18.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Leather Technical Dictionary

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Authors: Otto, G., Ylla-Català, A. and Spiers, C. Publisher: Darmstadt: Eduard Roether Verlag. Publication date: 1977. Price: DM 156. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

English

AA.VV. Glossario Tecnico della Pelle

(English, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Authors: Rescaldina (v. Matteotti 125, 20027 Rescaldina, MI; editma@pn.itnet.it). Publisher: Casa Editrice. Publication date: 1998. Price: Lit. 50.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

International Dictionary of the Leather and Allied Trades

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Author: Freudenberg, Walter. Publisher: Springer-Verlag, New York. Publication date: 1968. Price: $18.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Leather Technical Dictionary

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Authors: Otto, G., Ylla-Català, A. and Spiers, C. Publisher: Darmstadt: Eduard Roether Verlag. Publication date: 1977. Price: DM 156. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Biologia e Medicina

(English, Italian)

Authors: Delfino, Giovanni, et al. Publisher: Bologna: Zanichelli. Publication date: 1990 (CD-ROM version: 1998). Price: Lit. 125.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary CHE. 1.3 - Chemical Engineering and Laboratory Equipment

(English, Italian)

Publisher: Widnau (CH):Schnellmann Verlag. Publication date: 1988. Price: £29.30. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science & Techniques

(Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish)

Author: Sliosberg, A. Publisher: Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1980. Price: Two volumes, $200 each. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Nuovo Dizionario delle Scienze Mediche

(English, Italian)

Authors: Bussi, Luciano; Cognazzo, M. Teresa. Publisher: Turin (c.so Bramante 83-85, 10126): Minerva Medica. Publication date: 1983, two volumes. Price: Lit 48.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dizionario Enciclopedico di Medicina

(English, Italian)

Authors: Chiampo, Luigi; Gould, George (et al.). Publisher: Bologna:Zanichelli/McGraw-Hill. Publication date: 1988. Price: Lit 98.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dizionario Medico Ragionato

(English, Italian)

Authors: Lucchesi, Mario. Milan (l.go Richini 1). Publisher: Libreria Cortina. Publication date: 1987. Price: Lit 150.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Taber-Dizionario Enciclopedico di Scienze Mediche (English, Italian)

Editor: Thomas, Clayton. Publisher: Milan (p.za Emilia 5, 20129): McGraw Hill Libri Italia.

Publication date: 1994, two volumes. Price: Lit. 146.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

French

Canadian Quaternary Vocabulary, Terminology Bulletin 209 Vocabulaire canadien du Quaternaire

Author: Chantal Cormier. Publisher: Secretary of State of Canada. Publication date: 1992. ISBN: 0-660-57486-1. Price: $25.95 (U.S.). Available from: International Specialized Book Services, 5804 NE Hassalo Street, Portland, OR 97213; Tel: 1- 800-547-7734, (503) 287-3093 (in Oregon); Fax: (503) 280-8832; and Accents Publications Services Inc., 911 Silver Spring Avenue, Suite 202, Silver Spring, MD 20910; Tel: (301) 588-5496; Fax: (301) 588-5249; and in Canada: Canada Communication Group - Publishing, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0S9; Tel: (819) 956-4802. Reviewed by: Patricia Bobeck. 28:68 Jan.

Dictionary of Canadian Place Names

Author: Alan Rayburn. Publisher: Oxford University Press, New York. Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 0-19-541086-6. Price: $37.50. Reviewed by: Sharlee Merner Bradley. 28:70 Jan.

Proceedings of the Conference on Financial Translation Held in Paris, June 1997, Organized by SBF— Bourse de Paris

Edited by: Robert Blake, Agnès Deleuse, Christine Durban. Publication date: 1998 (six papers in French or English on financial translation). Price and Availability: $26 postpaid within the United States. Visa and MasterCard accepted. Copies can be ordered from the Northern California Translators Association, P.O. Box 14015, Berkeley, CA 94712-5015; Tel: (510) 845-8712; Fax: (510) 883-1355. Reviewed by: Scott Brennan. 28:60 May.

International Dictionary of the Leather and Allied Trades

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Author: Freudenberg, Walter. Publisher: Springer-Verlag, New York. Publication date: 1968. Price: $18.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Leather Technical Dictionary

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Authors: Otto, G., Ylla-Català, A. and Spiers, C. Publisher: Darmstadt: Eduard Roether Verlag. Publication date: 1977. Price: DM 156. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science & Techniques

(Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish)

Author: Sliosberg, A. Publisher: Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1980. Price: Two volumes, $200 each. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

German

German Dictionary of Chemistry and Chemical Technology

(German to English) Fifth revised and expanded edition

Edited by: Technische Universität Dresden. Publisher: Routledge, London and New York. Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 0-415-17128-8. Price and where available: $150; Routledge, New York, NY; i.b.d., Ltd., Kinderhook, NY. Reviewed by: S. Edmund Berger. 28:66 Jan.

Wörterbuch der Physik. Englisch-Deutsch/Deutsch-Englisch (CD-ROM version)

Authors: Walter Greulich and Dirk Meenenga. Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag GmbH (available in the United States from i.b.d., Ltd., 24 Hudson Street, Kinderhook, NY 12106; Tel: 1-518-758-1755; Fax: 1-518-758-6702, or point your Web browser to http://www.ibdltd.com). Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 3-8274-0229-8. Price: $127 from i.b.d., Ltd. Reviewed by: Thomas Hedden. 28:66 Jan.

Routledge German Dictionary of Information Technology / Wörterbuch Informationstechnologie Englisch-CD-ROM

Publication date:1997. ISBN: 0-415-13963-5. Price: $160 in the U.S. through i.b.d. Ltd., 1-800-343-3531, or www.ibdltd.com. Reviewed by: Claudia Kellersch. 28:52 Feb.

German Dictionary of Philosophical Terms / Wörterbuch philosophischer Fachbegriffe Englisch

Authors: Elmar Waibl and Philip Herdina. Publishers: K.G. Saur Verlag and Routledge. Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 0-415-17890-8 (Routledge); 3-598-11329-3 (Saur) Hardcover, two-volume set, 885 pages. Price: $280 (also available separately at $140 per volume). Reviewed by: Ann C. Sherwin. 28:58 March.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Hungarian

English-Hungarian Dictionary

Editors: László Országh and Tamás Magay. Publisher: Akadémia Kiadó, 1117 Budapest, Prielle Kornélia u. 19-35. Hungary. Publication date: 1998. ISBN: 963-05-7514 0. Reviewed by: Catherine Bokor. 28:53 April.

Hungarian-English Dictionary

Editors: László Országh, DezsOE Futász and Zoltán Kövecses. Publisher: Akadémia Kiadó, 1117 Budapest, Prielle Kornélia u. 19-35. Hungary. Publication date: 1998. ISBN: 963-05-7515 0. Reviewed by: Catherine Bokor. 28:54 April.

Italian

AA.VV. Glossario Tecnico della Pelle

(English, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Authors: Rescaldina (v. Matteotti 125, 20027 Rescaldina, MI; editma@pn.itnet.it). Publisher: Casa Editrice. Publication date: 1998. Price: Lit. 50.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

International Dictionary of the Leather and Allied Trades

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Author: Freudenberg, Walter. Publisher: Springer-Verlag, New York. Publication date: 1968. Price: $18.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Leather Technical Dictionary

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Authors: Otto, G., Ylla-Català, A. and Spiers, C. Publisher: Darmstadt: Eduard Roether Verlag. Publication date: 1977. Price: DM 156. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Biologia e Medicina (English, Italian)

Authors: Delfino, Giovanni, et al. Publisher: Bologna: Zanichelli. Publication date: 1990 (CD- ROM version: 1998). Price: Lit. 125.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary CHE. 1.3 - Chemical Engineering and Laboratory Equipment (English, Italian)

Publisher: Widnau (CH):Schnellmann Verlag. Publication date: 1988. Price: £29.30. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science & Techniques

(Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish)

Author: Sliosberg, A. Publisher: Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1980. Price: Two volumes, $200 each. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Nuovo Dizionario delle Scienze Mediche (English, Italian)

Authors: Bussi, Luciano; Cognazzo, M. Teresa. Publisher: Turin (c.so Bramante 83-85, 10126): Minerva Medica. Publication date: 1983, two volumes. Price: Lit 48.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dizionario Enciclopedico di Medicina (English, Italian)

Authors: Chiampo, Luigi; Gould, George (et al.). Publisher: Bologna:Zanichelli/McGraw-Hill. Publication date: 1988. Price: Lit 98.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dizionario Medico Ragionato (English, Italian)

Authors: Lucchesi, Mario. Milan (l.go Richini 1). Publisher: Libreria Cortina. Publication date: 1987. Price: Lit 150.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Taber-Dizionario Enciclopedico di Scienze Mediche (English, Italian)

Editor: Thomas, Clayton. Publisher: Milan (p.za Emilia 5, 20129): McGraw Hill Libri Italia. Publication date: 1994, two volumes. Price: Lit. 146.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Norwegian

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Portuguese

AA.VV. Glossario Tecnico della Pelle (English, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Authors: Rescaldina (v. Matteotti 125, 20027 Rescaldina, MI; editma@pn.itnet.it). Publisher: Casa Editrice. Publication date: 1998. Price: Lit. 50.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Russian

Elsevier’s Dictionary of Hydrological and Hydrogeological Environment Russian-English, English-Russian

Authors: R.G.Dzhamalov, I.S.Zektser, and R.A.Kamenetsky. Publisher: Elsevier: Amsterdam—London—New York—Tokyo Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Publication date: 1992. ISBN: 0-444-88419-x. Price: $190. Reviewed by: Vadim Khazin. 28:54 April.

International Dictionary of the Leather and Allied Trades

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Author: Freudenberg, Walter. Publisher: Springer-Verlag, New York. Publication date: 1968. Price: $18.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Leather Technical Dictionary

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Authors: Otto, G., Ylla-Català, A. and Spiers, C. Publisher: Darmstadt: Eduard Roether Verlag. Publication date: 1977. Price: DM 156. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Spanish

Spanish Dictionary of Environmental Technology / Diccionario Inglés de Tecnología Medioambiental

Author: Miguel A. Gaspar Paricio, Instituto Papelero Español. Publisher: Routledge. Publication date: 1998. ISBN: 0-415-15265-8. Price and where available: $140 from Routledge. Reviewed by: M. Eta Trabing. 28:52 Feb.

Diccionario bilingüe de terminología jurídica inglés-español, español-inglés tercera edición ampliada y revisada

Authors: Patricia Olga Mazzucco and Alejandra Hebe Maranghello. Publisher: Abeledo-Perrot, Buenos Aires. Publication date: 1998. ISBN: 950-20-1119-8. Reviewed by: Tom West. 28:59 March.

Hamel’s Comprehensive Bilingual Dictionary of Spanish False Cognates

Author: Bernard H. Hamel. Publisher: Bilingual Book Press, Los Angeles, California. Publication date:1998. ISBN: 1-886835-06-3 (paperback). Price: $29.95. Reviewed by: Andrew Hurley. 28:69 June.

Diccionario de los usos correctos del español, María Luisa de Serrano Redonnet and Alicia María Zorrilla de Rodríguez

Editor: Silvia Jaúregui. Publisher: Editorial Ángel Estrada y Cía., S.A. ISBN: Text: 950-01-0602-7; CD-ROM: 950-01-0703-1 (1997). Price: $79.95 (text). Available from: Schoenhof’s Foreign Books at (617) 547-8855; Fax: (617) 547-8551; Website: www.schoenhofs.com (CD-ROM). For price and availability, please call i.b.d., Ltd. at (518) 758-1755, ext. 14. Reviewed by: Dan Mac Dougall. 28:64 Aug.

Diccionario bilingüe de términos bursátiles (Spanish<>English)

Publisher: Dearborn Financial Publishing, Inc., Chicago. Publication date: 1999. Price: $29.95. ISBN: 0-7391-3006-9. Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 28:77 Sept.

Diccionario bursátil (términos y expresiones de bolsa, economía y finanzas) (English>Spanish)

Authors: Ana López de Puga and Mariana Inés Oriolo. Publisher: Editorial Universidad, Buenos Aires. Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 950-679-192-9. Price: $40.50. Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 28:77 Sept.

Diccionario Espasa (Economía y Negocios – Arthur Andersen)

Publisher: Espasa Calpe, S.A., Madrid. Publication date: 1997. ISBN: 84-239-9421-x. Price: $39.95. Reviewed by: Marian S. Greenfield. 28:77 Sept.

AA.VV. Glossario Tecnico della Pelle (English, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Authors: Rescaldina (v. Matteotti 125, 20027 Rescaldina, MI; editma@pn.itnet.it). Publisher: Casa Editrice. Publication date: 1998. Price: Lit. 50.000. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

International Dictionary of the Leather and Allied Trades

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Author: Freudenberg, Walter. Publisher: Springer-Verlag, New York. Publication date: 1968. Price: $18.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Leather Technical Dictionary

(Dutch, English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish)

Authors: Otto, G., Ylla-Català, A. and Spiers, C. Publisher: Darmstadt: Eduard Roether Verlag. Publication date: 1977. Price: DM 156. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:79 Sept.

Spanish-English Dictionary of Law and Business

Author: Thomas L. West III. Publisher: Atlanta: Protea Publishing. ISBN: 1-883707-37-4. Price: $75. Available from: i.b.d. (1-800-343-3531) or directly from the author at his company, Intermark Language Services, toll-free at (1-888-295-7113) or www.intermark-languages.com. Reviewed by: Sharlee Merner Bradley. 28:70 Oct.

CECTU Biotechnology Glossary

(Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish)

Publisher: London: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1990. Price: $243.50. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science & Techniques

(Danish, English, French, Italian, Spanish)

Author: Sliosberg, A. Publisher: Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Publication date: 1980. Price: Two volumes, $200 each. Reviewed by: Jacopo Madarò. 28:65 Nov./Dec.

Translation Studies

Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies

Editors: Mona Baker, editor; Kirsten Malmkjaer, assistant editor. Publisher: London & New York: Routledge. Publication date: 1998. ISBN: 0-415-09380-5. Price: $165. Available from: Routledge (http://www.routledge.com). Reviewed by: Dieter Wältermann. 28:64 Nov./Dec.

Welsh

The Welsh Learner’s Dictionary

Author: Heini Gruffudd. Publisher: Y. Lolfa, Wales. Available from: In North America: ISBS (International Specialized Book Services, Inc.), 5804 NE Hassalo Street, Portland, Oregon 97213-3644; Tel: (503) 287-3093; e-mail: mail@isbs.com. Reviewed by: Tony Ellis and Yam Linford. 28:63 July.

NINNAU’s Guide to the Use of the Welsh Language for Beginners and Others

Author: Robert A. Fowkes. Publisher: NINNAU Publications, 11 Post Terrace, Basking Ridge, New Jersey 07920. Price: $8.50. Reviewed by: Welsh learners Tony Ellis and Kim Linford. 28:63 July.

(Letters to the Editor)

Fraktur. Stephen G. Brown. 28:12 Jan.

My First Conference. Salma Zakaria. 28:13 Feb.

Protecting Our Work. Lisbeth Mejer. 28:13 Feb.

The Interpreters Division: All Inclusive, All Welcome. Diane E. Teichman. 28:11 April.

Accreditation Exams: International or Not? 28:16 Aug.

Response to Accreditation Issue. 28:16 Shuckran Kamal. 28:16 Aug.

Foreign Exams. Lina Dokhgan-Ansouqa. 28:17 Aug.

Accreditation Protest. Leticia Molinero. 28:17 Aug.

Accreditation and Translation Quality. Miguel Carmona. 28:14 Sept.

Accreditation and Quality: Clarification on Active Membership Review Process. Marian S. Greenfield. 28:14 Sept.

Accreditation Exams Outside the U.S. J. Henry Phillips and Kalily Diana. 28:22 Oct.

ATA Bylaws Revisited…Proposal Enhances Executive Structure and Broadens Membership Representation. Henry Fischbach. 28:22 Oct.

Proposed Change in Terms and Responsibilities for ATA's Officers. Nicholas Hartmann. 28:24 Oct.

ATA Bylaws Proposal. Peter W. Krawutschke. 28:24 Oct.

ATA Bylaws. Edith Losa. 28:24 Oct.

Bylaws Amendment. Pat Newman. 28:24 Oct.

ATA Conference. Janet Fraser. 28:13 Nov./Dec.

A Matter of Political Correctness. Eileen Osmond Savdié. 28:13 Nov./Dec.

(Humor and Translation by Mark Herman)

Irrational Language. 28:75 Jan.

So They Think They Know English. 28:59 Feb.

Theatrical Comic Names. 28:66 March.

Bits and Pieces. 28:58 April.

Wilhelm Busch. 28:64 May.

The UnDutchables. 28:72 June.

More Bits and Pieces. 28:66 July.

Puzzles for the Columnist. 28:68 Aug.

A Lecture on Copyrights. 28:84 Sept.

I am a Tip-Top Starlet. 28:73 Oct.

OO! English! 28:70 Nov./Dec.

Miss Interpreter Speaks by Laura Wolfson

28:56 May.

Our Colleagues Write by Gertrud Champe

28:51 Feb.

28:57 March.

28:58 May.

28:68 June.

(The Translation Inquirer by John Decker)

28:72 Jan.

28:56 Feb.

28:64 March.

28:56 April.

28:62 May.

28:70 June.

28:64 July.

28:65 Aug.

28:81 Sept.

28:71 Oct.

28:68 Nov./Dec.

MISCELLANEOUS/ASSOCIATION-RELATED NEWS

New Peer Review Policy and Final Report of the Ad Hoc Membership Categories, Rights, and Benefits Committee. 28:14 May.

It is Time to Give. Peter Krawutschke. 28:15 May.

The American Foundation for Translation and Interpretation, Inc. conducts its first capital campaign.

Proposed Amendments to the ATA Bylaws. 28:18 Sept.

Local Motion: A Report from the ATA Chapters Committee. Kirk Anderson. 28:28 Sept.

The Chapter's Committee is hard at work learning about, and trying to meet the needs of local translation and interpreting groups. This article highlights what's been done on the local front so far this year, what remains to be done, and some exciting plans for the future.

FIT at 46 in Mons, Belgium. Peter Krawutschke. 28:16 Sept.

A Report on the FIT Congress.

Draft Minutes: Annual Business Meeting of the American Translators Association. 28:18 Oct.

(ATA Division Reports)

French

ATA French Division Meeting A Success. Joan Bond Sax. 28:20 Jan.

German

Highlights of the German Language Division Activities. Helge L. Gunther. 28:14 March.

Find out what was accomplished at the ATA Annual Conference, and the division's plans for the coming year.

Hebrew

The Hebrew Language Division [being established]. Batya Reichman. 28:23 Jan.

Interpreters

Greetings From the Interpreters' Division. Diane E. Teichman. 28:65 Jan.

Japanese

A Brief Note from the Japanese Language Division. Jon Johanning. 28:23 Jan.

Japanese Language Division Activities at ATA Conference. John Bukacek. 28:39 May.

An update on the session ATA's Japanese Language Division plans to host during the Upcoming ATA conference in St. Louis.

Nordic

Nordics Go South! Edith Matteson. 28:26 Jan.

Portuguese

ATA's Portuguese Language Division: Growing into the New Millennium. Timothy Yuan. 28:24 Aug.

ATA's Portuguese Language Division's plans for the upcoming conference and beyond.

Slavic

Slavic Language Activities at Hilton Head. Lydia Razran Stone. 28:24 Jan.

Spanish

Highlights of the Spanish Language Activities at the ATA Annual Conference. Alicia S.V. Marshall. 28:21 Jan.

The Spanish Language Division Continues to Thrive! Alicia S.V. Marshall. 28:48 Oct.

The Spanish Language Division forges ahead toward the new millennium.

(ATA Board of Directors Elections)

ATA 1999 Elections Candidate Statements. 28:20 Sept.